Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The literature on neighborhood effects frequently is evaluated or interpreted in relation to the question, "Do neighborhoods matter?" We argue that this question has had a disproportionate influence on the field and does not align with the complexity of theoretical models of neighborhood effects or empirical findings that have arisen from the literature. In this article, we focus on empirical work that considers how different dimensions of individuals' residential contexts become salient in their lives, how contexts influence individuals' lives over different timeframes, how individuals are affected by social processes operating at different scales, and how residential contexts influence the lives of individuals in heterogeneous ways. In other words, we review research that examines where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter. Using the large literature on neighborhoods and educational and cognitive outcomes as an example, the research we review suggests that any attempt to reduce the literature to a single answer about whether neighborhoods matter is misguided. We call for a more flexible study of context effects in which theory, measurement, and methods are more closely aligned with the specific mechanisms and social processes under study. ©

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559-579
Number of pages21
JournalAnnual Review of Sociology
Volume40
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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social process
measurement theory
literature

Keywords

  • Academic achievement
  • Cognitive development
  • Effect heterogeneity
  • Neighborhood effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

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title = "Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects",
abstract = "The literature on neighborhood effects frequently is evaluated or interpreted in relation to the question, {"}Do neighborhoods matter?{"} We argue that this question has had a disproportionate influence on the field and does not align with the complexity of theoretical models of neighborhood effects or empirical findings that have arisen from the literature. In this article, we focus on empirical work that considers how different dimensions of individuals' residential contexts become salient in their lives, how contexts influence individuals' lives over different timeframes, how individuals are affected by social processes operating at different scales, and how residential contexts influence the lives of individuals in heterogeneous ways. In other words, we review research that examines where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter. Using the large literature on neighborhoods and educational and cognitive outcomes as an example, the research we review suggests that any attempt to reduce the literature to a single answer about whether neighborhoods matter is misguided. We call for a more flexible study of context effects in which theory, measurement, and methods are more closely aligned with the specific mechanisms and social processes under study. {\circledC}",
keywords = "Academic achievement, Cognitive development, Effect heterogeneity, Neighborhood effects",
author = "Patrick Sharkey and Faber, {Jacob W.}",
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journal = "Annual Review of Sociology",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects

AU - Sharkey, Patrick

AU - Faber, Jacob W.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The literature on neighborhood effects frequently is evaluated or interpreted in relation to the question, "Do neighborhoods matter?" We argue that this question has had a disproportionate influence on the field and does not align with the complexity of theoretical models of neighborhood effects or empirical findings that have arisen from the literature. In this article, we focus on empirical work that considers how different dimensions of individuals' residential contexts become salient in their lives, how contexts influence individuals' lives over different timeframes, how individuals are affected by social processes operating at different scales, and how residential contexts influence the lives of individuals in heterogeneous ways. In other words, we review research that examines where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter. Using the large literature on neighborhoods and educational and cognitive outcomes as an example, the research we review suggests that any attempt to reduce the literature to a single answer about whether neighborhoods matter is misguided. We call for a more flexible study of context effects in which theory, measurement, and methods are more closely aligned with the specific mechanisms and social processes under study. ©

AB - The literature on neighborhood effects frequently is evaluated or interpreted in relation to the question, "Do neighborhoods matter?" We argue that this question has had a disproportionate influence on the field and does not align with the complexity of theoretical models of neighborhood effects or empirical findings that have arisen from the literature. In this article, we focus on empirical work that considers how different dimensions of individuals' residential contexts become salient in their lives, how contexts influence individuals' lives over different timeframes, how individuals are affected by social processes operating at different scales, and how residential contexts influence the lives of individuals in heterogeneous ways. In other words, we review research that examines where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter. Using the large literature on neighborhoods and educational and cognitive outcomes as an example, the research we review suggests that any attempt to reduce the literature to a single answer about whether neighborhoods matter is misguided. We call for a more flexible study of context effects in which theory, measurement, and methods are more closely aligned with the specific mechanisms and social processes under study. ©

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KW - Cognitive development

KW - Effect heterogeneity

KW - Neighborhood effects

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JO - Annual Review of Sociology

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