Virus inactivation in red cell concentrates by photosensitization with phthalocyanines

Protection of red cells but not of vesicular stomatitis virus with a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E

E. Ben-Hur, S. Rywkin, Nicholas Geacintov, N. E. Geacintov, B. Horowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Photodynamic treatment of red cells (RBCs) with phthalocyanines and red light inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and human immunodeficiency virus. To protect RBCs from photodynamic damage, type I free radical quenchers, such as mannitol, which did not affect virus inactivation, were added. Study Design and Methods: Aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4) was found to inactivate VSV at a rate one-fourth that of the silicon phthalocyanines (Pc 4 and Pc 5). However, the latter also caused more RBC damage. To protect RBCs against this photodynamic damage, Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, was used. RBC damage was measured as potassium leakage or hemolysis during storage after treatment. In addition, reduction in negative surface charge on RBCs was measured immediately after treatment, and the effect of Trolox on VSV inactivation in RBCs was evaluated. Results: Trolox at a concentration of 5 mM was found to reduce potassium leakage during storage after Pc 4 and AlPcS4 photodynamic treatment of RBCs. Hemolysis during storage of RBC concentrates treated with Pc 4 or Pc 5 was drastically reduced by the addition of 5 mM Trolox prior to light exposure. At the same concentration, Trolox inhibited the reduction of negative surface charges on RBCs following Pc 4 and Pc 5 photodynamic treatment. Under these conditions, VSV inactivation by photodynamic treatment with all phthalocyanines was not affected by Trolox. In aqueous solution, Trolox formed a complex with AlPcS4, thus quenching the excited triplet state of AlPcS4 at a constant rate of 8.8 x 106 per M per second. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Trolox protects RBCs from phthalocyanine-photosensitized damage without affecting virus kill. The addition of Trolox would be beneficial for improving the quality of RBCs subjected to photodynamic treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-406
Number of pages6
JournalTransfusion
Volume35
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1995

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Virus Inactivation
Photosensitivity Disorders
Vesicular Stomatitis
Cytoprotection
Vitamin E
Viruses
Water
silicon phthalocyanine
Hemolysis
Potassium
6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid
phthalocyanine
Light
Mannitol
Free Radicals
HIV
Lipids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Hematology

Cite this

@article{47808d2b54d34256ab627f27bbdac3cc,
title = "Virus inactivation in red cell concentrates by photosensitization with phthalocyanines: Protection of red cells but not of vesicular stomatitis virus with a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E",
abstract = "Background: Photodynamic treatment of red cells (RBCs) with phthalocyanines and red light inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and human immunodeficiency virus. To protect RBCs from photodynamic damage, type I free radical quenchers, such as mannitol, which did not affect virus inactivation, were added. Study Design and Methods: Aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4) was found to inactivate VSV at a rate one-fourth that of the silicon phthalocyanines (Pc 4 and Pc 5). However, the latter also caused more RBC damage. To protect RBCs against this photodynamic damage, Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, was used. RBC damage was measured as potassium leakage or hemolysis during storage after treatment. In addition, reduction in negative surface charge on RBCs was measured immediately after treatment, and the effect of Trolox on VSV inactivation in RBCs was evaluated. Results: Trolox at a concentration of 5 mM was found to reduce potassium leakage during storage after Pc 4 and AlPcS4 photodynamic treatment of RBCs. Hemolysis during storage of RBC concentrates treated with Pc 4 or Pc 5 was drastically reduced by the addition of 5 mM Trolox prior to light exposure. At the same concentration, Trolox inhibited the reduction of negative surface charges on RBCs following Pc 4 and Pc 5 photodynamic treatment. Under these conditions, VSV inactivation by photodynamic treatment with all phthalocyanines was not affected by Trolox. In aqueous solution, Trolox formed a complex with AlPcS4, thus quenching the excited triplet state of AlPcS4 at a constant rate of 8.8 x 106 per M per second. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Trolox protects RBCs from phthalocyanine-photosensitized damage without affecting virus kill. The addition of Trolox would be beneficial for improving the quality of RBCs subjected to photodynamic treatment.",
author = "E. Ben-Hur and S. Rywkin and Nicholas Geacintov and Geacintov, {N. E.} and B. Horowitz",
year = "1995",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "35",
pages = "401--406",
journal = "Transfusion",
issn = "0041-1132",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Virus inactivation in red cell concentrates by photosensitization with phthalocyanines

T2 - Protection of red cells but not of vesicular stomatitis virus with a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E

AU - Ben-Hur, E.

AU - Rywkin, S.

AU - Geacintov, Nicholas

AU - Geacintov, N. E.

AU - Horowitz, B.

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - Background: Photodynamic treatment of red cells (RBCs) with phthalocyanines and red light inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and human immunodeficiency virus. To protect RBCs from photodynamic damage, type I free radical quenchers, such as mannitol, which did not affect virus inactivation, were added. Study Design and Methods: Aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4) was found to inactivate VSV at a rate one-fourth that of the silicon phthalocyanines (Pc 4 and Pc 5). However, the latter also caused more RBC damage. To protect RBCs against this photodynamic damage, Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, was used. RBC damage was measured as potassium leakage or hemolysis during storage after treatment. In addition, reduction in negative surface charge on RBCs was measured immediately after treatment, and the effect of Trolox on VSV inactivation in RBCs was evaluated. Results: Trolox at a concentration of 5 mM was found to reduce potassium leakage during storage after Pc 4 and AlPcS4 photodynamic treatment of RBCs. Hemolysis during storage of RBC concentrates treated with Pc 4 or Pc 5 was drastically reduced by the addition of 5 mM Trolox prior to light exposure. At the same concentration, Trolox inhibited the reduction of negative surface charges on RBCs following Pc 4 and Pc 5 photodynamic treatment. Under these conditions, VSV inactivation by photodynamic treatment with all phthalocyanines was not affected by Trolox. In aqueous solution, Trolox formed a complex with AlPcS4, thus quenching the excited triplet state of AlPcS4 at a constant rate of 8.8 x 106 per M per second. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Trolox protects RBCs from phthalocyanine-photosensitized damage without affecting virus kill. The addition of Trolox would be beneficial for improving the quality of RBCs subjected to photodynamic treatment.

AB - Background: Photodynamic treatment of red cells (RBCs) with phthalocyanines and red light inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and human immunodeficiency virus. To protect RBCs from photodynamic damage, type I free radical quenchers, such as mannitol, which did not affect virus inactivation, were added. Study Design and Methods: Aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4) was found to inactivate VSV at a rate one-fourth that of the silicon phthalocyanines (Pc 4 and Pc 5). However, the latter also caused more RBC damage. To protect RBCs against this photodynamic damage, Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, was used. RBC damage was measured as potassium leakage or hemolysis during storage after treatment. In addition, reduction in negative surface charge on RBCs was measured immediately after treatment, and the effect of Trolox on VSV inactivation in RBCs was evaluated. Results: Trolox at a concentration of 5 mM was found to reduce potassium leakage during storage after Pc 4 and AlPcS4 photodynamic treatment of RBCs. Hemolysis during storage of RBC concentrates treated with Pc 4 or Pc 5 was drastically reduced by the addition of 5 mM Trolox prior to light exposure. At the same concentration, Trolox inhibited the reduction of negative surface charges on RBCs following Pc 4 and Pc 5 photodynamic treatment. Under these conditions, VSV inactivation by photodynamic treatment with all phthalocyanines was not affected by Trolox. In aqueous solution, Trolox formed a complex with AlPcS4, thus quenching the excited triplet state of AlPcS4 at a constant rate of 8.8 x 106 per M per second. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Trolox protects RBCs from phthalocyanine-photosensitized damage without affecting virus kill. The addition of Trolox would be beneficial for improving the quality of RBCs subjected to photodynamic treatment.

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