Type Ia supernovae strongly interacting with their circumstellar medium

Jeffrey M. Silverman, Peter E. Nugent, Avishay Gal-Yam, Mark Sullivan, D. Andrew Howell, Alexei V. Filippenko, Iair Arcavi, Sagi Ben-Ami, Joshua S. Bloom, S. Bradley Cenko, Yi Cao, Ryan Chornock, Kelsey I. Clubb, Alison L. Coil, Ryan J. Foley, Melissa L. Graham, Christopher V. Griffith, Assaf Horesh, Mansi M. Kasliwal, Shrinivas R. KulkarniDouglas C. Leonard, Weidong Li, Thomas Matheson, Adam A. Miller, Maryam Modjaz, Eran O. Ofek, Yen Chen Pan, Daniel A. Perley, Dovi Poznanski, Robert M. Quimby, Thea N. Steele, Assaf Sternberg, Dong Xu, Ofer Yaron

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by Hα emission (with widths of ∼2000 km s-1) and exhibit large Hα/Hβ intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of Hα 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag ≤ M R ≤ -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number3
    JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
    Volume207
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jul 2013

    Fingerprint

    supernovae
    hydrogen
    young population
    ejecta
    galaxies
    explosion
    extinction
    shell
    radio
    dust
    ultraviolet emission
    Magellanic clouds
    industrial plants
    wings
    explosions
    brightness

    Keywords

    • 015205, PTF11kx, PTF10htz, PTF10iuf, PTF10yni, PTF11dsb, PTF11hzx, PTF12efc)
    • circumstellar matter
    • supernovae: general
    • supernovae: individual (SN 1997cy, SN 1999E,SN 2002ic, SN 2005gj, SN 2008J, SN 2008cg, SN 2011jb, CSS120327:110520

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Silverman, J. M., Nugent, P. E., Gal-Yam, A., Sullivan, M., Howell, D. A., Filippenko, A. V., ... Yaron, O. (2013). Type Ia supernovae strongly interacting with their circumstellar medium. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, 207(1), [3]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/207/1/3

    Type Ia supernovae strongly interacting with their circumstellar medium. / Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D. Andrew; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Cao, Yi; Chornock, Ryan; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Coil, Alison L.; Foley, Ryan J.; Graham, Melissa L.; Griffith, Christopher V.; Horesh, Assaf; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Leonard, Douglas C.; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Miller, Adam A.; Modjaz, Maryam; Ofek, Eran O.; Pan, Yen Chen; Perley, Daniel A.; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M.; Steele, Thea N.; Sternberg, Assaf; Xu, Dong; Yaron, Ofer.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, Vol. 207, No. 1, 3, 07.2013.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Silverman, JM, Nugent, PE, Gal-Yam, A, Sullivan, M, Howell, DA, Filippenko, AV, Arcavi, I, Ben-Ami, S, Bloom, JS, Cenko, SB, Cao, Y, Chornock, R, Clubb, KI, Coil, AL, Foley, RJ, Graham, ML, Griffith, CV, Horesh, A, Kasliwal, MM, Kulkarni, SR, Leonard, DC, Li, W, Matheson, T, Miller, AA, Modjaz, M, Ofek, EO, Pan, YC, Perley, DA, Poznanski, D, Quimby, RM, Steele, TN, Sternberg, A, Xu, D & Yaron, O 2013, 'Type Ia supernovae strongly interacting with their circumstellar medium', Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, vol. 207, no. 1, 3. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/207/1/3
    Silverman JM, Nugent PE, Gal-Yam A, Sullivan M, Howell DA, Filippenko AV et al. Type Ia supernovae strongly interacting with their circumstellar medium. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2013 Jul;207(1). 3. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/207/1/3
    Silverman, Jeffrey M. ; Nugent, Peter E. ; Gal-Yam, Avishay ; Sullivan, Mark ; Howell, D. Andrew ; Filippenko, Alexei V. ; Arcavi, Iair ; Ben-Ami, Sagi ; Bloom, Joshua S. ; Cenko, S. Bradley ; Cao, Yi ; Chornock, Ryan ; Clubb, Kelsey I. ; Coil, Alison L. ; Foley, Ryan J. ; Graham, Melissa L. ; Griffith, Christopher V. ; Horesh, Assaf ; Kasliwal, Mansi M. ; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. ; Leonard, Douglas C. ; Li, Weidong ; Matheson, Thomas ; Miller, Adam A. ; Modjaz, Maryam ; Ofek, Eran O. ; Pan, Yen Chen ; Perley, Daniel A. ; Poznanski, Dovi ; Quimby, Robert M. ; Steele, Thea N. ; Sternberg, Assaf ; Xu, Dong ; Yaron, Ofer. / Type Ia supernovae strongly interacting with their circumstellar medium. In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2013 ; Vol. 207, No. 1.
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    AU - Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    AU - Nugent, Peter E.

    AU - Gal-Yam, Avishay

    AU - Sullivan, Mark

    AU - Howell, D. Andrew

    AU - Filippenko, Alexei V.

    AU - Arcavi, Iair

    AU - Ben-Ami, Sagi

    AU - Bloom, Joshua S.

    AU - Cenko, S. Bradley

    AU - Cao, Yi

    AU - Chornock, Ryan

    AU - Clubb, Kelsey I.

    AU - Coil, Alison L.

    AU - Foley, Ryan J.

    AU - Graham, Melissa L.

    AU - Griffith, Christopher V.

    AU - Horesh, Assaf

    AU - Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    AU - Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    AU - Leonard, Douglas C.

    AU - Li, Weidong

    AU - Matheson, Thomas

    AU - Miller, Adam A.

    AU - Modjaz, Maryam

    AU - Ofek, Eran O.

    AU - Pan, Yen Chen

    AU - Perley, Daniel A.

    AU - Poznanski, Dovi

    AU - Quimby, Robert M.

    AU - Steele, Thea N.

    AU - Sternberg, Assaf

    AU - Xu, Dong

    AU - Yaron, Ofer

    PY - 2013/7

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    N2 - Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by Hα emission (with widths of ∼2000 km s-1) and exhibit large Hα/Hβ intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of Hα 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag ≤ M R ≤ -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

    AB - Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by Hα emission (with widths of ∼2000 km s-1) and exhibit large Hα/Hβ intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of Hα 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag ≤ M R ≤ -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

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    KW - supernovae: general

    KW - supernovae: individual (SN 1997cy, SN 1999E,SN 2002ic, SN 2005gj, SN 2008J, SN 2008cg, SN 2011jb, CSS120327:110520

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