Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management From Emerging Adulthood Through Older Adulthood

Margaret M McCarthy, Margaret Grey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study of adults with type 1 diabetes was to analyze patterns of diabetes self-management behaviors and predictors of glycemic control across the adult life span.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from of 7,153 adults enrolled in the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange clinic registry who were divided into four developmental stages (emerging, young, middle-aged, and older adults). Data were collected by questionnaire and medical record review at enrollment. Statistical analyses compared sociodemographic, clinical, and diabetes-related factors across groups. Logistic regressions were conducted for each group to identify factors associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7%.

RESULTS: The sample was divided according to adult developmental stage: emerging adults, age 18 to <25 years (n = 2,478 [35%]); young adults, age 25 to <45 years (n = 2,274 [32%]); middle-aged adults, age 45 to <65 years (n = 1,868 [26%]; and older adults, age ≥65 years (n = 533 [7%]). Emerging adults had the highest mean hemoglobin A1c level (8.4 ± 1.7% [68 mmol/mol]), whereas older adults had the lowest level (7.3 ± 0.97% [56 mmol/mol]; P < 0.0001). Emerging adults were less likely to use an insulin pump (56%) or a continuous glucose monitor (7%), but were more likely to miss at least one insulin dose per day (3%) and have had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis in the past year (7%) (all P < 0.0001). Different factors were associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7% in each age group, but two factors were noted across several groups: the frequency of blood glucose checks and missed insulin doses.

CONCLUSIONS: When discussing diabetes self-management, providers may consider a patient's developmental stage, with its competing demands, such as work and family; psychosocial adjustments; and the potential burden of comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDiabetes Care
DOIs
StateE-pub ahead of print - May 25 2018

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Self Care
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Hemoglobins
Insulin
Social Adjustment
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Medical Records
Registries
Blood Glucose
Comorbidity
Young Adult
Age Groups
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Glucose

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Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management From Emerging Adulthood Through Older Adulthood. / McCarthy, Margaret M; Grey, Margaret.

In: Diabetes Care, 25.05.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study of adults with type 1 diabetes was to analyze patterns of diabetes self-management behaviors and predictors of glycemic control across the adult life span.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from of 7,153 adults enrolled in the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange clinic registry who were divided into four developmental stages (emerging, young, middle-aged, and older adults). Data were collected by questionnaire and medical record review at enrollment. Statistical analyses compared sociodemographic, clinical, and diabetes-related factors across groups. Logistic regressions were conducted for each group to identify factors associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7{\%}.RESULTS: The sample was divided according to adult developmental stage: emerging adults, age 18 to <25 years (n = 2,478 [35{\%}]); young adults, age 25 to <45 years (n = 2,274 [32{\%}]); middle-aged adults, age 45 to <65 years (n = 1,868 [26{\%}]; and older adults, age ≥65 years (n = 533 [7{\%}]). Emerging adults had the highest mean hemoglobin A1c level (8.4 ± 1.7{\%} [68 mmol/mol]), whereas older adults had the lowest level (7.3 ± 0.97{\%} [56 mmol/mol]; P < 0.0001). Emerging adults were less likely to use an insulin pump (56{\%}) or a continuous glucose monitor (7{\%}), but were more likely to miss at least one insulin dose per day (3{\%}) and have had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis in the past year (7{\%}) (all P < 0.0001). Different factors were associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7{\%} in each age group, but two factors were noted across several groups: the frequency of blood glucose checks and missed insulin doses.CONCLUSIONS: When discussing diabetes self-management, providers may consider a patient's developmental stage, with its competing demands, such as work and family; psychosocial adjustments; and the potential burden of comorbidities.",
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AU - Grey, Margaret

N1 - © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

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N2 - OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study of adults with type 1 diabetes was to analyze patterns of diabetes self-management behaviors and predictors of glycemic control across the adult life span.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from of 7,153 adults enrolled in the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange clinic registry who were divided into four developmental stages (emerging, young, middle-aged, and older adults). Data were collected by questionnaire and medical record review at enrollment. Statistical analyses compared sociodemographic, clinical, and diabetes-related factors across groups. Logistic regressions were conducted for each group to identify factors associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7%.RESULTS: The sample was divided according to adult developmental stage: emerging adults, age 18 to <25 years (n = 2,478 [35%]); young adults, age 25 to <45 years (n = 2,274 [32%]); middle-aged adults, age 45 to <65 years (n = 1,868 [26%]; and older adults, age ≥65 years (n = 533 [7%]). Emerging adults had the highest mean hemoglobin A1c level (8.4 ± 1.7% [68 mmol/mol]), whereas older adults had the lowest level (7.3 ± 0.97% [56 mmol/mol]; P < 0.0001). Emerging adults were less likely to use an insulin pump (56%) or a continuous glucose monitor (7%), but were more likely to miss at least one insulin dose per day (3%) and have had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis in the past year (7%) (all P < 0.0001). Different factors were associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7% in each age group, but two factors were noted across several groups: the frequency of blood glucose checks and missed insulin doses.CONCLUSIONS: When discussing diabetes self-management, providers may consider a patient's developmental stage, with its competing demands, such as work and family; psychosocial adjustments; and the potential burden of comorbidities.

AB - OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study of adults with type 1 diabetes was to analyze patterns of diabetes self-management behaviors and predictors of glycemic control across the adult life span.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from of 7,153 adults enrolled in the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange clinic registry who were divided into four developmental stages (emerging, young, middle-aged, and older adults). Data were collected by questionnaire and medical record review at enrollment. Statistical analyses compared sociodemographic, clinical, and diabetes-related factors across groups. Logistic regressions were conducted for each group to identify factors associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7%.RESULTS: The sample was divided according to adult developmental stage: emerging adults, age 18 to <25 years (n = 2,478 [35%]); young adults, age 25 to <45 years (n = 2,274 [32%]); middle-aged adults, age 45 to <65 years (n = 1,868 [26%]; and older adults, age ≥65 years (n = 533 [7%]). Emerging adults had the highest mean hemoglobin A1c level (8.4 ± 1.7% [68 mmol/mol]), whereas older adults had the lowest level (7.3 ± 0.97% [56 mmol/mol]; P < 0.0001). Emerging adults were less likely to use an insulin pump (56%) or a continuous glucose monitor (7%), but were more likely to miss at least one insulin dose per day (3%) and have had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis in the past year (7%) (all P < 0.0001). Different factors were associated with hemoglobin A1c ≥7% in each age group, but two factors were noted across several groups: the frequency of blood glucose checks and missed insulin doses.CONCLUSIONS: When discussing diabetes self-management, providers may consider a patient's developmental stage, with its competing demands, such as work and family; psychosocial adjustments; and the potential burden of comorbidities.

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DO - 10.2337/dc17-2597

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JO - Diabetes Care

JF - Diabetes Care

SN - 1935-5548

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