Trends in hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, risk behaviors, and preventive measures among seattle injection drug users aged 18-30 years, 1994-2004

Richard D. Burt, Holly Hagan, Richard S. Garfein, Keith Sabin, Cindy Weinbaum, Hanne Thiede

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Information on time trends in prevalence of these viruses among IDUs and in behaviors influencing their transmission can help define the status of these epidemics and of public health efforts to control them. We conducted a secondary data analysis combining cross-sectional data from IDUs aged 18-30 years enrolled in four Seattle-area studies from 1994 to 2004. Participants in all four studies were tested for antibody to HIV (anti-HIV), hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and HCV (anti-HCV), and completed behavioral risk assessments. Logistic regression was used to investigate trends in prevalence over time after controlling for sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual behavior variables. Between 1994 and 2004, anti-HBc prevalence declined from 43 to 15% (p<0.001), anti-HCV prevalence fell from 68 to 32% (p<0.001) and anti-HIV prevalence remained constant at 2-3%. Declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence were observed within the individual studies, although not all these declines were statistically significant. The declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence remained significant after control for confounding. Although we did not observe coincident declines in injection equipment sharing practices, there were increases in self-reported needle-exchange use, condom use, and hepatitis B vaccination. We conclude that there has been a substantial and sustained reduction in prevalence rates for HBV and HCV infection among young Seattle IDUs, while HIV rates have remained low and stable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-454
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Urban Health
Volume84
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007

Fingerprint

Risk-Taking
Drug Users
risk behavior
Hepatitis B virus
Hepacivirus
contagious disease
HIV
drug
Hepatitis B Core Antigens
Injections
trend
HIV Antibodies
influencing behavior
Condoms
Virus Diseases
Hepatitis B
Sexual Behavior
Needles
secondary analysis
vaccination

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis B vaccination
  • Hepatitis C
  • HIV
  • Injection drug users
  • Needle exchange
  • Needle sharing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Trends in hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, risk behaviors, and preventive measures among seattle injection drug users aged 18-30 years, 1994-2004. / Burt, Richard D.; Hagan, Holly; Garfein, Richard S.; Sabin, Keith; Weinbaum, Cindy; Thiede, Hanne.

In: Journal of Urban Health, Vol. 84, No. 3, 05.2007, p. 436-454.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5ba1cedee5ff452497bacb7cc3007238,
title = "Trends in hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, risk behaviors, and preventive measures among seattle injection drug users aged 18-30 years, 1994-2004",
abstract = "Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Information on time trends in prevalence of these viruses among IDUs and in behaviors influencing their transmission can help define the status of these epidemics and of public health efforts to control them. We conducted a secondary data analysis combining cross-sectional data from IDUs aged 18-30 years enrolled in four Seattle-area studies from 1994 to 2004. Participants in all four studies were tested for antibody to HIV (anti-HIV), hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and HCV (anti-HCV), and completed behavioral risk assessments. Logistic regression was used to investigate trends in prevalence over time after controlling for sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual behavior variables. Between 1994 and 2004, anti-HBc prevalence declined from 43 to 15{\%} (p<0.001), anti-HCV prevalence fell from 68 to 32{\%} (p<0.001) and anti-HIV prevalence remained constant at 2-3{\%}. Declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence were observed within the individual studies, although not all these declines were statistically significant. The declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence remained significant after control for confounding. Although we did not observe coincident declines in injection equipment sharing practices, there were increases in self-reported needle-exchange use, condom use, and hepatitis B vaccination. We conclude that there has been a substantial and sustained reduction in prevalence rates for HBV and HCV infection among young Seattle IDUs, while HIV rates have remained low and stable.",
keywords = "Adolescents, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B vaccination, Hepatitis C, HIV, Injection drug users, Needle exchange, Needle sharing",
author = "Burt, {Richard D.} and Holly Hagan and Garfein, {Richard S.} and Keith Sabin and Cindy Weinbaum and Hanne Thiede",
year = "2007",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1007/s11524-007-9178-2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "84",
pages = "436--454",
journal = "Journal of Urban Health",
issn = "1099-3460",
publisher = "Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Trends in hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, risk behaviors, and preventive measures among seattle injection drug users aged 18-30 years, 1994-2004

AU - Burt, Richard D.

AU - Hagan, Holly

AU - Garfein, Richard S.

AU - Sabin, Keith

AU - Weinbaum, Cindy

AU - Thiede, Hanne

PY - 2007/5

Y1 - 2007/5

N2 - Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Information on time trends in prevalence of these viruses among IDUs and in behaviors influencing their transmission can help define the status of these epidemics and of public health efforts to control them. We conducted a secondary data analysis combining cross-sectional data from IDUs aged 18-30 years enrolled in four Seattle-area studies from 1994 to 2004. Participants in all four studies were tested for antibody to HIV (anti-HIV), hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and HCV (anti-HCV), and completed behavioral risk assessments. Logistic regression was used to investigate trends in prevalence over time after controlling for sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual behavior variables. Between 1994 and 2004, anti-HBc prevalence declined from 43 to 15% (p<0.001), anti-HCV prevalence fell from 68 to 32% (p<0.001) and anti-HIV prevalence remained constant at 2-3%. Declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence were observed within the individual studies, although not all these declines were statistically significant. The declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence remained significant after control for confounding. Although we did not observe coincident declines in injection equipment sharing practices, there were increases in self-reported needle-exchange use, condom use, and hepatitis B vaccination. We conclude that there has been a substantial and sustained reduction in prevalence rates for HBV and HCV infection among young Seattle IDUs, while HIV rates have remained low and stable.

AB - Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Information on time trends in prevalence of these viruses among IDUs and in behaviors influencing their transmission can help define the status of these epidemics and of public health efforts to control them. We conducted a secondary data analysis combining cross-sectional data from IDUs aged 18-30 years enrolled in four Seattle-area studies from 1994 to 2004. Participants in all four studies were tested for antibody to HIV (anti-HIV), hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and HCV (anti-HCV), and completed behavioral risk assessments. Logistic regression was used to investigate trends in prevalence over time after controlling for sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual behavior variables. Between 1994 and 2004, anti-HBc prevalence declined from 43 to 15% (p<0.001), anti-HCV prevalence fell from 68 to 32% (p<0.001) and anti-HIV prevalence remained constant at 2-3%. Declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence were observed within the individual studies, although not all these declines were statistically significant. The declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence remained significant after control for confounding. Although we did not observe coincident declines in injection equipment sharing practices, there were increases in self-reported needle-exchange use, condom use, and hepatitis B vaccination. We conclude that there has been a substantial and sustained reduction in prevalence rates for HBV and HCV infection among young Seattle IDUs, while HIV rates have remained low and stable.

KW - Adolescents

KW - Hepatitis B

KW - Hepatitis B vaccination

KW - Hepatitis C

KW - HIV

KW - Injection drug users

KW - Needle exchange

KW - Needle sharing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34248347080&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34248347080&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s11524-007-9178-2

DO - 10.1007/s11524-007-9178-2

M3 - Article

C2 - 17356901

AN - SCOPUS:34248347080

VL - 84

SP - 436

EP - 454

JO - Journal of Urban Health

JF - Journal of Urban Health

SN - 1099-3460

IS - 3

ER -