Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the framingham heart study participants

Maya Vadiveloo, Marc Scott, Paula Quatromoni, Paul Jacques, Niyati Parekh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ≥A 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8A % of energy and 16·8-18·0A % of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0- 46·8A % of energy; P-trend <A 0·001). Increases in the percentage of energy derived from all fat subtypes were observed, except for that derived from trans-fats, which decreased over time (P-trend <A 0·001). Trends were similar between the sexes, although women exhibited a greater increase in the percentage of energy derived from saturated fat and less reduction in the percentage of energy derived from trans-fats (P interaction <A 0·05). Trends in fat intake were similar across the BMI categories. The number of weekly servings of cheese, eggs, ice cream desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend <A 0·001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, the percentage of energy derived from dietary fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35A % of total energy, on average.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)724-734
Number of pages11
JournalThe British journal of nutrition
Volume111
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 28 2014

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Dietary Fats
Eating
Fats
Ice Cream
Margarine
Butter
Nuts
Bread
Cheese
Poultry
Meat
Eggs
Longitudinal Studies
Insulin Resistance
Milk
Cohort Studies
Obesity
Carbohydrates
Proteins

Keywords

  • Dietary fats
  • Framingham Heart Study
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the framingham heart study participants. / Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati.

In: The British journal of nutrition, Vol. 111, No. 4, 28.02.2014, p. 724-734.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ≥A 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8A % of energy and 16·8-18·0A % of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0- 46·8A % of energy; P-trend <A 0·001). Increases in the percentage of energy derived from all fat subtypes were observed, except for that derived from trans-fats, which decreased over time (P-trend <A 0·001). Trends were similar between the sexes, although women exhibited a greater increase in the percentage of energy derived from saturated fat and less reduction in the percentage of energy derived from trans-fats (P interaction <A 0·05). Trends in fat intake were similar across the BMI categories. The number of weekly servings of cheese, eggs, ice cream desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend <A 0·001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, the percentage of energy derived from dietary fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35A % of total energy, on average.

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