Tongue inspection in TCM: Observations in a study sample of patients living with HIV

Joyce Anastasi, Michelle Chang, Jessica Quinn, Bernadette Capili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: One of the principal diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the inspection of the tongue. This method involves examination of the shape, size, color, and texture of the tongue body and coat and helps reveal the state of organ functions and progression of conditions. Literature on tongue observations for patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal. Objective: The goal of this study was to provide a clinical "snapshot" of initial tongue assessments of 159 patients living with HIV, who participated in an acupuncture clinical trial for chronic nausea. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences observed in tongue assessments. Design: This study was part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded (subjects and evaluators), parallel-groups, acupuncture clinical trial for treating chronic nausea. Setting: The study was conducted at a large urban New York City academic health center. Patients: The patients in this study were 159 individuals who had HIV infections and who had histories of chronic nausea for ≥3 months. Main Outcome Measures: Initial tongue assessments were recorded for seven basic characteristics: (1) tongue color; (2) tongue shape; (3) tongue body quality; (4) coat color; (5) coat weight; (6) coat surface; and (7) tongue action. Results: The overall tongue picture seen in these patients was that the tongue was swollen and toothmarked, had a pink body with cracks, and had a thick, dry white coat. Conclusions: The HIV disease itself and the use of long term medications affect the Blood, Qi, Yin, and Yang. The observation of the tongue provides a window into the process of the disease and, ultimately, insight for clinical care. This sample population snapshot illustrates the complex processes seen in long-term chronic conditions managed by pharmacologic medications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15-22
Number of pages8
JournalMedical Acupuncture
Volume26
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2014

Fingerprint

Chinese Traditional Medicine
Tongue
HIV
Nausea
Color
Acupuncture
Virus Diseases
Clinical Trials
Yin-Yang
Qi
Observation
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Keywords

  • Acupuncture
  • HIV
  • Tongue
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Tongue inspection in TCM : Observations in a study sample of patients living with HIV. / Anastasi, Joyce; Chang, Michelle; Quinn, Jessica; Capili, Bernadette.

In: Medical Acupuncture, Vol. 26, No. 1, 01.02.2014, p. 15-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{9e668ba5bc5a4427a3401122f3cfe7af,
title = "Tongue inspection in TCM: Observations in a study sample of patients living with HIV",
abstract = "Background: One of the principal diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the inspection of the tongue. This method involves examination of the shape, size, color, and texture of the tongue body and coat and helps reveal the state of organ functions and progression of conditions. Literature on tongue observations for patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal. Objective: The goal of this study was to provide a clinical {"}snapshot{"} of initial tongue assessments of 159 patients living with HIV, who participated in an acupuncture clinical trial for chronic nausea. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences observed in tongue assessments. Design: This study was part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded (subjects and evaluators), parallel-groups, acupuncture clinical trial for treating chronic nausea. Setting: The study was conducted at a large urban New York City academic health center. Patients: The patients in this study were 159 individuals who had HIV infections and who had histories of chronic nausea for ≥3 months. Main Outcome Measures: Initial tongue assessments were recorded for seven basic characteristics: (1) tongue color; (2) tongue shape; (3) tongue body quality; (4) coat color; (5) coat weight; (6) coat surface; and (7) tongue action. Results: The overall tongue picture seen in these patients was that the tongue was swollen and toothmarked, had a pink body with cracks, and had a thick, dry white coat. Conclusions: The HIV disease itself and the use of long term medications affect the Blood, Qi, Yin, and Yang. The observation of the tongue provides a window into the process of the disease and, ultimately, insight for clinical care. This sample population snapshot illustrates the complex processes seen in long-term chronic conditions managed by pharmacologic medications.",
keywords = "Acupuncture, HIV, Tongue, Traditional Chinese Medicine",
author = "Joyce Anastasi and Michelle Chang and Jessica Quinn and Bernadette Capili",
year = "2014",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1089/acu.2013.1011",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "26",
pages = "15--22",
journal = "Medical Acupuncture",
issn = "1933-6586",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tongue inspection in TCM

T2 - Observations in a study sample of patients living with HIV

AU - Anastasi, Joyce

AU - Chang, Michelle

AU - Quinn, Jessica

AU - Capili, Bernadette

PY - 2014/2/1

Y1 - 2014/2/1

N2 - Background: One of the principal diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the inspection of the tongue. This method involves examination of the shape, size, color, and texture of the tongue body and coat and helps reveal the state of organ functions and progression of conditions. Literature on tongue observations for patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal. Objective: The goal of this study was to provide a clinical "snapshot" of initial tongue assessments of 159 patients living with HIV, who participated in an acupuncture clinical trial for chronic nausea. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences observed in tongue assessments. Design: This study was part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded (subjects and evaluators), parallel-groups, acupuncture clinical trial for treating chronic nausea. Setting: The study was conducted at a large urban New York City academic health center. Patients: The patients in this study were 159 individuals who had HIV infections and who had histories of chronic nausea for ≥3 months. Main Outcome Measures: Initial tongue assessments were recorded for seven basic characteristics: (1) tongue color; (2) tongue shape; (3) tongue body quality; (4) coat color; (5) coat weight; (6) coat surface; and (7) tongue action. Results: The overall tongue picture seen in these patients was that the tongue was swollen and toothmarked, had a pink body with cracks, and had a thick, dry white coat. Conclusions: The HIV disease itself and the use of long term medications affect the Blood, Qi, Yin, and Yang. The observation of the tongue provides a window into the process of the disease and, ultimately, insight for clinical care. This sample population snapshot illustrates the complex processes seen in long-term chronic conditions managed by pharmacologic medications.

AB - Background: One of the principal diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the inspection of the tongue. This method involves examination of the shape, size, color, and texture of the tongue body and coat and helps reveal the state of organ functions and progression of conditions. Literature on tongue observations for patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal. Objective: The goal of this study was to provide a clinical "snapshot" of initial tongue assessments of 159 patients living with HIV, who participated in an acupuncture clinical trial for chronic nausea. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences observed in tongue assessments. Design: This study was part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded (subjects and evaluators), parallel-groups, acupuncture clinical trial for treating chronic nausea. Setting: The study was conducted at a large urban New York City academic health center. Patients: The patients in this study were 159 individuals who had HIV infections and who had histories of chronic nausea for ≥3 months. Main Outcome Measures: Initial tongue assessments were recorded for seven basic characteristics: (1) tongue color; (2) tongue shape; (3) tongue body quality; (4) coat color; (5) coat weight; (6) coat surface; and (7) tongue action. Results: The overall tongue picture seen in these patients was that the tongue was swollen and toothmarked, had a pink body with cracks, and had a thick, dry white coat. Conclusions: The HIV disease itself and the use of long term medications affect the Blood, Qi, Yin, and Yang. The observation of the tongue provides a window into the process of the disease and, ultimately, insight for clinical care. This sample population snapshot illustrates the complex processes seen in long-term chronic conditions managed by pharmacologic medications.

KW - Acupuncture

KW - HIV

KW - Tongue

KW - Traditional Chinese Medicine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84894493784&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84894493784&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/acu.2013.1011

DO - 10.1089/acu.2013.1011

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84894493784

VL - 26

SP - 15

EP - 22

JO - Medical Acupuncture

JF - Medical Acupuncture

SN - 1933-6586

IS - 1

ER -