### Abstract

A basic assumption of Signal Detection Theory is that decisions are made on the basis of likelihood ratios. In a preceding paper, Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 431–455, 2009) showed that the likelihood ratio assumption implies that three regularities will occur in recognition memory: (1) the Mirror Effect, (2) the Variance Effect, (3) the normalized Receiver Operating Characteristic (z-ROC) Length Effect. The paper offered formal proofs and computational demonstrations that decisions based on likelihood ratios produce the three regularities. A survey of data based on group ROCs from 36 studies validated the likelihood ratio assumption by showing that its three implied regularities are ubiquitous. The study noted, however, that bias, another basic factor in Signal Detection Theory, can obscure the Mirror Effect. In this paper we examine how bias affects the regularities at the theoretical level. The theoretical analysis shows: (1) how bias obscures the Mirror Effect, not the other two regularities, and (2) four ways to counter that obscuring. We then report the results of five experiments that support the theoretical analysis. The analyses and the experimental results also demonstrate: (1) that the three regularities govern individual, as well as group, performance, (2) alternative explanations of the regularities are ruled out, and (3) that Signal Detection Theory, correctly applied, gives a simple and unified explanation of recognition memory data.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 1646-1664 |

Number of pages | 19 |

Journal | Psychonomic Bulletin and Review |

Volume | 22 |

Issue number | 6 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Dec 1 2015 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- Bias
- Likelihood ratio
- Recognition memory
- Signal detection theory

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Developmental and Educational Psychology

### Cite this

*Psychonomic Bulletin and Review*,

*22*(6), 1646-1664. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0829-0

**Three regularities of recognition memory : the role of bias.** / Hilford, Andrew; Maloney, Laurence; Glanzer, Murray; Kim, Kisok.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Psychonomic Bulletin and Review*, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1646-1664. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0829-0

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Three regularities of recognition memory

T2 - the role of bias

AU - Hilford, Andrew

AU - Maloney, Laurence

AU - Glanzer, Murray

AU - Kim, Kisok

PY - 2015/12/1

Y1 - 2015/12/1

N2 - A basic assumption of Signal Detection Theory is that decisions are made on the basis of likelihood ratios. In a preceding paper, Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 431–455, 2009) showed that the likelihood ratio assumption implies that three regularities will occur in recognition memory: (1) the Mirror Effect, (2) the Variance Effect, (3) the normalized Receiver Operating Characteristic (z-ROC) Length Effect. The paper offered formal proofs and computational demonstrations that decisions based on likelihood ratios produce the three regularities. A survey of data based on group ROCs from 36 studies validated the likelihood ratio assumption by showing that its three implied regularities are ubiquitous. The study noted, however, that bias, another basic factor in Signal Detection Theory, can obscure the Mirror Effect. In this paper we examine how bias affects the regularities at the theoretical level. The theoretical analysis shows: (1) how bias obscures the Mirror Effect, not the other two regularities, and (2) four ways to counter that obscuring. We then report the results of five experiments that support the theoretical analysis. The analyses and the experimental results also demonstrate: (1) that the three regularities govern individual, as well as group, performance, (2) alternative explanations of the regularities are ruled out, and (3) that Signal Detection Theory, correctly applied, gives a simple and unified explanation of recognition memory data.

AB - A basic assumption of Signal Detection Theory is that decisions are made on the basis of likelihood ratios. In a preceding paper, Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 431–455, 2009) showed that the likelihood ratio assumption implies that three regularities will occur in recognition memory: (1) the Mirror Effect, (2) the Variance Effect, (3) the normalized Receiver Operating Characteristic (z-ROC) Length Effect. The paper offered formal proofs and computational demonstrations that decisions based on likelihood ratios produce the three regularities. A survey of data based on group ROCs from 36 studies validated the likelihood ratio assumption by showing that its three implied regularities are ubiquitous. The study noted, however, that bias, another basic factor in Signal Detection Theory, can obscure the Mirror Effect. In this paper we examine how bias affects the regularities at the theoretical level. The theoretical analysis shows: (1) how bias obscures the Mirror Effect, not the other two regularities, and (2) four ways to counter that obscuring. We then report the results of five experiments that support the theoretical analysis. The analyses and the experimental results also demonstrate: (1) that the three regularities govern individual, as well as group, performance, (2) alternative explanations of the regularities are ruled out, and (3) that Signal Detection Theory, correctly applied, gives a simple and unified explanation of recognition memory data.

KW - Bias

KW - Likelihood ratio

KW - Recognition memory

KW - Signal detection theory

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84947047639&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84947047639&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3758/s13423-015-0829-0

DO - 10.3758/s13423-015-0829-0

M3 - Article

C2 - 25933627

AN - SCOPUS:84947047639

VL - 22

SP - 1646

EP - 1664

JO - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review

JF - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review

SN - 1069-9384

IS - 6

ER -