The XENON1T data acquisition system

E. Aprile, J. Aalbers, F. Agostini, M. Alfonsi, L. Althueser, F. D. Amaro, V. C. Antochi, F. Arneodo, D. Barge, L. Baudis, B. Bauermeister, L. Bellagamba, M. L. Benabderrahmane, T. Berger, P. A. Breur, A. Brown, E. Brown, S. Bruenner, G. Bruno, R. BudnikL. Bütikofer, C. Capelli, J. M.R. Cardoso, D. Cichon, D. Coderre, A. P. Colijn, J. Conrad, J. P. Cussonneau, M. P. Decowski, P. De Perio, P. Di Gangi, A. Di Giovanni, S. Diglio, A. Elykov, G. Eurin, J. Fei, A. D. Ferella, A. Fieguth, W. Fulgione, P. Gaemers, A. Gallo Rosso, M. Galloway, F. Gao, M. Garbini, L. Grandi, Z. Greene, C. Hasterok, E. Hogenbirk, J. Howlett, M. Iacovacci, R. Itay, F. Joerg, S. Kazama, A. Kish, M. Kobayashi, G. Koltman, A. Kopec, H. Landsman, R. F. Lang, L. Levinson, Q. Lin, S. Lindemann, M. Lindner, F. Lombardi, J. A.M. Lopes, E. López Fune, C. MacOlino, J. Mahlstedt, A. Manfredini, F. Marignetti, T. Marrodán Undagoitia, J. Masbou, D. Masson, S. Mastroianni, M. Messina, K. Micheneau, K. Miller, A. Molinario, K. Morå, Y. Mosbacher, M. Murra, J. Naganoma, K. Ni, U. Oberlack, K. Odgers, B. Pelssers, R. Peres, F. Piastra, J. Pienaar, V. Pizzella, G. Plante, R. Podviianiuk, H. Qiu, D. Ramírez Garciá, S. Reichard, B. Riedel, A. Rocchetti, N. Rupp, J. M.F.Dos Santos, G. Sartorelli, N. Šarčević, M. Scheibelhut, S. Schindler, J. Schreiner, D. Schulte, M. Schumann, L. Scotto Lavina, M. Selvi, P. Shagin, E. Shockley, M. Silva, H. Simgen, C. Therreau, D. Thers, F. Toschi, G. Trinchero, C. D. Tunnell, N. Upole, M. Vargas, G. Volta, O. Wack, H. Wang, Y. Wei, C. Weinheimer, D. Wenz, C. Wittweg, J. Wulf, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, T. Zhu, J. P. Zopounidis, For The Xenon Collaboration, M. Pieracci, C. Tintori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The XENON1T liquid xenon time projection chamber is the most sensitive detector built to date for the measurement of direct interactions of weakly interacting massive particles with normal matter. The data acquisition system (DAQ) is constructed from commercial, open source, and custom components to digitize signals from the detector and store them for later analysis. The system achieves an extremely low signal threshold by triggering each channel independently, achieving a single photoelectron acceptance of (93 ± 3)%, and deferring the global trigger to a later, software stage. The event identification is based on MongoDB database queries and has over 98% efficiency at recognizing interactions at the analysis threshold in the center of the target. A readout bandwidth over 300 MB/s is reached in calibration modes and is further expandable via parallelization. This DAQ system was successfully used during three years of operation of XENON1T.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberP07016
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Volume14
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 24 2019

Fingerprint

Data Acquisition
data acquisition
Data acquisition
Detectors
weakly interacting massive particles
thresholds
detectors
Xenon
Photoelectrons
acceptability
xenon
readout
photoelectrons
actuators
chambers
projection
Time Projection Chamber
Detector
interactions
Calibration

Keywords

  • Control and monitor systems online
  • Data acquisition concepts
  • Front-end electronics for detector readout
  • Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematical Physics
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Aprile, E., Aalbers, J., Agostini, F., Alfonsi, M., Althueser, L., Amaro, F. D., ... Tintori, C. (2019). The XENON1T data acquisition system. Journal of Instrumentation, 14(7), [P07016]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/14/07/P07016

The XENON1T data acquisition system. / Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Althueser, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Antochi, V. C.; Arneodo, F.; Barge, D.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Bellagamba, L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Capelli, C.; Cardoso, J. M.R.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; De Perio, P.; Gangi, P. Di; Giovanni, A. Di; Diglio, S.; Elykov, A.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gaemers, P.; Rosso, A. Gallo; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Iacovacci, M.; Itay, R.; Joerg, F.; Kazama, S.; Kish, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Koltman, G.; Kopec, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A.M.; Fune, E. López; MacOlino, C.; Mahlstedt, J.; Manfredini, A.; Marignetti, F.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Masbou, J.; Masson, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miller, K.; Molinario, A.; Morå, K.; Mosbacher, Y.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Odgers, K.; Pelssers, B.; Peres, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Plante, G.; Podviianiuk, R.; Qiu, H.; Garciá, D. Ramírez; Reichard, S.; Riedel, B.; Rocchetti, A.; Rupp, N.; Santos, J. M.F.Dos; Sartorelli, G.; Šarčević, N.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulte, D.; Schumann, M.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Therreau, C.; Thers, D.; Toschi, F.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C. D.; Upole, N.; Vargas, M.; Volta, G.; Wack, O.; Wang, H.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wenz, D.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Zopounidis, J. P.; Collaboration, For The Xenon; Pieracci, M.; Tintori, C.

In: Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 14, No. 7, P07016, 24.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aprile, E, Aalbers, J, Agostini, F, Alfonsi, M, Althueser, L, Amaro, FD, Antochi, VC, Arneodo, F, Barge, D, Baudis, L, Bauermeister, B, Bellagamba, L, Benabderrahmane, ML, Berger, T, Breur, PA, Brown, A, Brown, E, Bruenner, S, Bruno, G, Budnik, R, Bütikofer, L, Capelli, C, Cardoso, JMR, Cichon, D, Coderre, D, Colijn, AP, Conrad, J, Cussonneau, JP, Decowski, MP, De Perio, P, Gangi, PD, Giovanni, AD, Diglio, S, Elykov, A, Eurin, G, Fei, J, Ferella, AD, Fieguth, A, Fulgione, W, Gaemers, P, Rosso, AG, Galloway, M, Gao, F, Garbini, M, Grandi, L, Greene, Z, Hasterok, C, Hogenbirk, E, Howlett, J, Iacovacci, M, Itay, R, Joerg, F, Kazama, S, Kish, A, Kobayashi, M, Koltman, G, Kopec, A, Landsman, H, Lang, RF, Levinson, L, Lin, Q, Lindemann, S, Lindner, M, Lombardi, F, Lopes, JAM, Fune, EL, MacOlino, C, Mahlstedt, J, Manfredini, A, Marignetti, F, Undagoitia, TM, Masbou, J, Masson, D, Mastroianni, S, Messina, M, Micheneau, K, Miller, K, Molinario, A, Morå, K, Mosbacher, Y, Murra, M, Naganoma, J, Ni, K, Oberlack, U, Odgers, K, Pelssers, B, Peres, R, Piastra, F, Pienaar, J, Pizzella, V, Plante, G, Podviianiuk, R, Qiu, H, Garciá, DR, Reichard, S, Riedel, B, Rocchetti, A, Rupp, N, Santos, JMFD, Sartorelli, G, Šarčević, N, Scheibelhut, M, Schindler, S, Schreiner, J, Schulte, D, Schumann, M, Lavina, LS, Selvi, M, Shagin, P, Shockley, E, Silva, M, Simgen, H, Therreau, C, Thers, D, Toschi, F, Trinchero, G, Tunnell, CD, Upole, N, Vargas, M, Volta, G, Wack, O, Wang, H, Wei, Y, Weinheimer, C, Wenz, D, Wittweg, C, Wulf, J, Ye, J, Zhang, Y, Zhu, T, Zopounidis, JP, Collaboration, FTX, Pieracci, M & Tintori, C 2019, 'The XENON1T data acquisition system', Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 14, no. 7, P07016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/14/07/P07016
Aprile E, Aalbers J, Agostini F, Alfonsi M, Althueser L, Amaro FD et al. The XENON1T data acquisition system. Journal of Instrumentation. 2019 Jul 24;14(7). P07016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/14/07/P07016
Aprile, E. ; Aalbers, J. ; Agostini, F. ; Alfonsi, M. ; Althueser, L. ; Amaro, F. D. ; Antochi, V. C. ; Arneodo, F. ; Barge, D. ; Baudis, L. ; Bauermeister, B. ; Bellagamba, L. ; Benabderrahmane, M. L. ; Berger, T. ; Breur, P. A. ; Brown, A. ; Brown, E. ; Bruenner, S. ; Bruno, G. ; Budnik, R. ; Bütikofer, L. ; Capelli, C. ; Cardoso, J. M.R. ; Cichon, D. ; Coderre, D. ; Colijn, A. P. ; Conrad, J. ; Cussonneau, J. P. ; Decowski, M. P. ; De Perio, P. ; Gangi, P. Di ; Giovanni, A. Di ; Diglio, S. ; Elykov, A. ; Eurin, G. ; Fei, J. ; Ferella, A. D. ; Fieguth, A. ; Fulgione, W. ; Gaemers, P. ; Rosso, A. Gallo ; Galloway, M. ; Gao, F. ; Garbini, M. ; Grandi, L. ; Greene, Z. ; Hasterok, C. ; Hogenbirk, E. ; Howlett, J. ; Iacovacci, M. ; Itay, R. ; Joerg, F. ; Kazama, S. ; Kish, A. ; Kobayashi, M. ; Koltman, G. ; Kopec, A. ; Landsman, H. ; Lang, R. F. ; Levinson, L. ; Lin, Q. ; Lindemann, S. ; Lindner, M. ; Lombardi, F. ; Lopes, J. A.M. ; Fune, E. López ; MacOlino, C. ; Mahlstedt, J. ; Manfredini, A. ; Marignetti, F. ; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán ; Masbou, J. ; Masson, D. ; Mastroianni, S. ; Messina, M. ; Micheneau, K. ; Miller, K. ; Molinario, A. ; Morå, K. ; Mosbacher, Y. ; Murra, M. ; Naganoma, J. ; Ni, K. ; Oberlack, U. ; Odgers, K. ; Pelssers, B. ; Peres, R. ; Piastra, F. ; Pienaar, J. ; Pizzella, V. ; Plante, G. ; Podviianiuk, R. ; Qiu, H. ; Garciá, D. Ramírez ; Reichard, S. ; Riedel, B. ; Rocchetti, A. ; Rupp, N. ; Santos, J. M.F.Dos ; Sartorelli, G. ; Šarčević, N. ; Scheibelhut, M. ; Schindler, S. ; Schreiner, J. ; Schulte, D. ; Schumann, M. ; Lavina, L. Scotto ; Selvi, M. ; Shagin, P. ; Shockley, E. ; Silva, M. ; Simgen, H. ; Therreau, C. ; Thers, D. ; Toschi, F. ; Trinchero, G. ; Tunnell, C. D. ; Upole, N. ; Vargas, M. ; Volta, G. ; Wack, O. ; Wang, H. ; Wei, Y. ; Weinheimer, C. ; Wenz, D. ; Wittweg, C. ; Wulf, J. ; Ye, J. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhu, T. ; Zopounidis, J. P. ; Collaboration, For The Xenon ; Pieracci, M. ; Tintori, C. / The XENON1T data acquisition system. In: Journal of Instrumentation. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 7.
@article{191c02921723460daa1d7963940ff640,
title = "The XENON1T data acquisition system",
abstract = "The XENON1T liquid xenon time projection chamber is the most sensitive detector built to date for the measurement of direct interactions of weakly interacting massive particles with normal matter. The data acquisition system (DAQ) is constructed from commercial, open source, and custom components to digitize signals from the detector and store them for later analysis. The system achieves an extremely low signal threshold by triggering each channel independently, achieving a single photoelectron acceptance of (93 ± 3){\%}, and deferring the global trigger to a later, software stage. The event identification is based on MongoDB database queries and has over 98{\%} efficiency at recognizing interactions at the analysis threshold in the center of the target. A readout bandwidth over 300 MB/s is reached in calibration modes and is further expandable via parallelization. This DAQ system was successfully used during three years of operation of XENON1T.",
keywords = "Control and monitor systems online, Data acquisition concepts, Front-end electronics for detector readout, Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software)",
author = "E. Aprile and J. Aalbers and F. Agostini and M. Alfonsi and L. Althueser and Amaro, {F. D.} and Antochi, {V. C.} and F. Arneodo and D. Barge and L. Baudis and B. Bauermeister and L. Bellagamba and Benabderrahmane, {M. L.} and T. Berger and Breur, {P. A.} and A. Brown and E. Brown and S. Bruenner and G. Bruno and R. Budnik and L. B{\"u}tikofer and C. Capelli and Cardoso, {J. M.R.} and D. Cichon and D. Coderre and Colijn, {A. P.} and J. Conrad and Cussonneau, {J. P.} and Decowski, {M. P.} and {De Perio}, P. and Gangi, {P. Di} and Giovanni, {A. Di} and S. Diglio and A. Elykov and G. Eurin and J. Fei and Ferella, {A. D.} and A. Fieguth and W. Fulgione and P. Gaemers and Rosso, {A. Gallo} and M. Galloway and F. Gao and M. Garbini and L. Grandi and Z. Greene and C. Hasterok and E. Hogenbirk and J. Howlett and M. Iacovacci and R. Itay and F. Joerg and S. Kazama and A. Kish and M. Kobayashi and G. Koltman and A. Kopec and H. Landsman and Lang, {R. F.} and L. Levinson and Q. Lin and S. Lindemann and M. Lindner and F. Lombardi and Lopes, {J. A.M.} and Fune, {E. L{\'o}pez} and C. MacOlino and J. Mahlstedt and A. Manfredini and F. Marignetti and Undagoitia, {T. Marrod{\'a}n} and J. Masbou and D. Masson and S. Mastroianni and M. Messina and K. Micheneau and K. Miller and A. Molinario and K. Mor{\aa} and Y. Mosbacher and M. Murra and J. Naganoma and K. Ni and U. Oberlack and K. Odgers and B. Pelssers and R. Peres and F. Piastra and J. Pienaar and V. Pizzella and G. Plante and R. Podviianiuk and H. Qiu and Garci{\'a}, {D. Ram{\'i}rez} and S. Reichard and B. Riedel and A. Rocchetti and N. Rupp and Santos, {J. M.F.Dos} and G. Sartorelli and N. Šarčević and M. Scheibelhut and S. Schindler and J. Schreiner and D. Schulte and M. Schumann and Lavina, {L. Scotto} and M. Selvi and P. Shagin and E. Shockley and M. Silva and H. Simgen and C. Therreau and D. Thers and F. Toschi and G. Trinchero and Tunnell, {C. D.} and N. Upole and M. Vargas and G. Volta and O. Wack and H. Wang and Y. Wei and C. Weinheimer and D. Wenz and C. Wittweg and J. Wulf and J. Ye and Y. Zhang and T. Zhu and Zopounidis, {J. P.} and Collaboration, {For The Xenon} and M. Pieracci and C. Tintori",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "24",
doi = "10.1088/1748-0221/14/07/P07016",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
journal = "Journal of Instrumentation",
issn = "1748-0221",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The XENON1T data acquisition system

AU - Aprile, E.

AU - Aalbers, J.

AU - Agostini, F.

AU - Alfonsi, M.

AU - Althueser, L.

AU - Amaro, F. D.

AU - Antochi, V. C.

AU - Arneodo, F.

AU - Barge, D.

AU - Baudis, L.

AU - Bauermeister, B.

AU - Bellagamba, L.

AU - Benabderrahmane, M. L.

AU - Berger, T.

AU - Breur, P. A.

AU - Brown, A.

AU - Brown, E.

AU - Bruenner, S.

AU - Bruno, G.

AU - Budnik, R.

AU - Bütikofer, L.

AU - Capelli, C.

AU - Cardoso, J. M.R.

AU - Cichon, D.

AU - Coderre, D.

AU - Colijn, A. P.

AU - Conrad, J.

AU - Cussonneau, J. P.

AU - Decowski, M. P.

AU - De Perio, P.

AU - Gangi, P. Di

AU - Giovanni, A. Di

AU - Diglio, S.

AU - Elykov, A.

AU - Eurin, G.

AU - Fei, J.

AU - Ferella, A. D.

AU - Fieguth, A.

AU - Fulgione, W.

AU - Gaemers, P.

AU - Rosso, A. Gallo

AU - Galloway, M.

AU - Gao, F.

AU - Garbini, M.

AU - Grandi, L.

AU - Greene, Z.

AU - Hasterok, C.

AU - Hogenbirk, E.

AU - Howlett, J.

AU - Iacovacci, M.

AU - Itay, R.

AU - Joerg, F.

AU - Kazama, S.

AU - Kish, A.

AU - Kobayashi, M.

AU - Koltman, G.

AU - Kopec, A.

AU - Landsman, H.

AU - Lang, R. F.

AU - Levinson, L.

AU - Lin, Q.

AU - Lindemann, S.

AU - Lindner, M.

AU - Lombardi, F.

AU - Lopes, J. A.M.

AU - Fune, E. López

AU - MacOlino, C.

AU - Mahlstedt, J.

AU - Manfredini, A.

AU - Marignetti, F.

AU - Undagoitia, T. Marrodán

AU - Masbou, J.

AU - Masson, D.

AU - Mastroianni, S.

AU - Messina, M.

AU - Micheneau, K.

AU - Miller, K.

AU - Molinario, A.

AU - Morå, K.

AU - Mosbacher, Y.

AU - Murra, M.

AU - Naganoma, J.

AU - Ni, K.

AU - Oberlack, U.

AU - Odgers, K.

AU - Pelssers, B.

AU - Peres, R.

AU - Piastra, F.

AU - Pienaar, J.

AU - Pizzella, V.

AU - Plante, G.

AU - Podviianiuk, R.

AU - Qiu, H.

AU - Garciá, D. Ramírez

AU - Reichard, S.

AU - Riedel, B.

AU - Rocchetti, A.

AU - Rupp, N.

AU - Santos, J. M.F.Dos

AU - Sartorelli, G.

AU - Šarčević, N.

AU - Scheibelhut, M.

AU - Schindler, S.

AU - Schreiner, J.

AU - Schulte, D.

AU - Schumann, M.

AU - Lavina, L. Scotto

AU - Selvi, M.

AU - Shagin, P.

AU - Shockley, E.

AU - Silva, M.

AU - Simgen, H.

AU - Therreau, C.

AU - Thers, D.

AU - Toschi, F.

AU - Trinchero, G.

AU - Tunnell, C. D.

AU - Upole, N.

AU - Vargas, M.

AU - Volta, G.

AU - Wack, O.

AU - Wang, H.

AU - Wei, Y.

AU - Weinheimer, C.

AU - Wenz, D.

AU - Wittweg, C.

AU - Wulf, J.

AU - Ye, J.

AU - Zhang, Y.

AU - Zhu, T.

AU - Zopounidis, J. P.

AU - Collaboration, For The Xenon

AU - Pieracci, M.

AU - Tintori, C.

PY - 2019/7/24

Y1 - 2019/7/24

N2 - The XENON1T liquid xenon time projection chamber is the most sensitive detector built to date for the measurement of direct interactions of weakly interacting massive particles with normal matter. The data acquisition system (DAQ) is constructed from commercial, open source, and custom components to digitize signals from the detector and store them for later analysis. The system achieves an extremely low signal threshold by triggering each channel independently, achieving a single photoelectron acceptance of (93 ± 3)%, and deferring the global trigger to a later, software stage. The event identification is based on MongoDB database queries and has over 98% efficiency at recognizing interactions at the analysis threshold in the center of the target. A readout bandwidth over 300 MB/s is reached in calibration modes and is further expandable via parallelization. This DAQ system was successfully used during three years of operation of XENON1T.

AB - The XENON1T liquid xenon time projection chamber is the most sensitive detector built to date for the measurement of direct interactions of weakly interacting massive particles with normal matter. The data acquisition system (DAQ) is constructed from commercial, open source, and custom components to digitize signals from the detector and store them for later analysis. The system achieves an extremely low signal threshold by triggering each channel independently, achieving a single photoelectron acceptance of (93 ± 3)%, and deferring the global trigger to a later, software stage. The event identification is based on MongoDB database queries and has over 98% efficiency at recognizing interactions at the analysis threshold in the center of the target. A readout bandwidth over 300 MB/s is reached in calibration modes and is further expandable via parallelization. This DAQ system was successfully used during three years of operation of XENON1T.

KW - Control and monitor systems online

KW - Data acquisition concepts

KW - Front-end electronics for detector readout

KW - Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072229438&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85072229438&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1748-0221/14/07/P07016

DO - 10.1088/1748-0221/14/07/P07016

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85072229438

VL - 14

JO - Journal of Instrumentation

JF - Journal of Instrumentation

SN - 1748-0221

IS - 7

M1 - P07016

ER -