The use of mosquito repellents at three sites in India with declining malaria transmission

Surveys in the community and clinic

Anna Maria Van Eijk, Lalitha Ramanathapuram, Patrick L. Sutton, Nandini Peddy, Sandhya Choubey, Stuti Mohanty, Aswin Asokan, Sangamithra Ravishankaran, G. Sri Lakshmi Priya, Justin Amala Johnson, Sangeetha Velayutham, Deena Kanagaraj, Ankita Patel, Nisha Desai, Nikunj Tandel, Steven A. Sullivan, Samuel C. Wassmer, Ranveer Singh, K. Pradhan, Jane M. Carlton & 3 others H. C. Srivasatava, Alex Eapen, S. K. Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Repellents such as coils, vaporizers, mats and creams can be used to reduce the risk of malaria and other infectious diseases. Although evidence for their effectiveness is limited, they are advertised as providing an additional approach to mosquito control in combination with other strategies, e.g. insecticide-treated nets. We examined the use of repellents in India in an urban setting in Chennai (mainly Plasmodium vivax malaria), a peri-urban setting in Nadiad (both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria), and a more rural setting in Raurkela (mainly P. falciparum malaria). Methods: The use of repellents was examined at the household level during a census, and at the individual level in cross-sectional surveys and among patients visiting a clinic with fever or other symptoms. Factors associated with their use were examined in a multivariate analysis, and the association between malaria and the use of repellents was assessed among survey- and clinic participants. Results: Characteristics of participants differed by region, with more people of higher education present in Chennai. Use of repellents varied between 56-77 % at the household level and between 32-78 % at the individual level. Vaporizers were the main repellents used in Chennai, whereas coils were more common in Nadiad and Raurkela. In Chennai and Nadiad, vaporizers were more likely to be used in households with young male children. Vaporizer use was associated with higher socio-economic status (SES) in households in Chennai and Nadiad, whereas use of coils was greater in the lower SES strata. In Raurkela, there was a higher use of coils among the higher SES strata. Education was associated with the use of a repellent among survey participants in Chennai and clinic study participants in Chennai and Nadiad. Repellent use was associated with less malaria in the clinic study in Chennai and Raurkela, but not in the surveys, with the exception of the use of coils in Nadiad. Conclusions: Repellents are widely used in India. Their use is influenced by the level of education and SES. Information on effectiveness and guidance on choices may improve rational use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number418
JournalParasites and Vectors
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 27 2016

Fingerprint

Nebulizers and Vaporizers
Culicidae
Malaria
India
Economics
Falciparum Malaria
Education
Mosquito Control
Vivax Malaria
Plasmodium vivax
Censuses
Insecticides
Communicable Diseases
Fever
Multivariate Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Education
  • Mosquito control
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Plasmodium vivax
  • Repellents
  • Rural
  • Socio-economic status
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Van Eijk, A. M., Ramanathapuram, L., Sutton, P. L., Peddy, N., Choubey, S., Mohanty, S., ... Sharma, S. K. (2016). The use of mosquito repellents at three sites in India with declining malaria transmission: Surveys in the community and clinic. Parasites and Vectors, 9(1), [418]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1709-9

The use of mosquito repellents at three sites in India with declining malaria transmission : Surveys in the community and clinic. / Van Eijk, Anna Maria; Ramanathapuram, Lalitha; Sutton, Patrick L.; Peddy, Nandini; Choubey, Sandhya; Mohanty, Stuti; Asokan, Aswin; Ravishankaran, Sangamithra; Priya, G. Sri Lakshmi; Johnson, Justin Amala; Velayutham, Sangeetha; Kanagaraj, Deena; Patel, Ankita; Desai, Nisha; Tandel, Nikunj; Sullivan, Steven A.; Wassmer, Samuel C.; Singh, Ranveer; Pradhan, K.; Carlton, Jane M.; Srivasatava, H. C.; Eapen, Alex; Sharma, S. K.

In: Parasites and Vectors, Vol. 9, No. 1, 418, 27.07.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Van Eijk, AM, Ramanathapuram, L, Sutton, PL, Peddy, N, Choubey, S, Mohanty, S, Asokan, A, Ravishankaran, S, Priya, GSL, Johnson, JA, Velayutham, S, Kanagaraj, D, Patel, A, Desai, N, Tandel, N, Sullivan, SA, Wassmer, SC, Singh, R, Pradhan, K, Carlton, JM, Srivasatava, HC, Eapen, A & Sharma, SK 2016, 'The use of mosquito repellents at three sites in India with declining malaria transmission: Surveys in the community and clinic', Parasites and Vectors, vol. 9, no. 1, 418. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1709-9
Van Eijk, Anna Maria ; Ramanathapuram, Lalitha ; Sutton, Patrick L. ; Peddy, Nandini ; Choubey, Sandhya ; Mohanty, Stuti ; Asokan, Aswin ; Ravishankaran, Sangamithra ; Priya, G. Sri Lakshmi ; Johnson, Justin Amala ; Velayutham, Sangeetha ; Kanagaraj, Deena ; Patel, Ankita ; Desai, Nisha ; Tandel, Nikunj ; Sullivan, Steven A. ; Wassmer, Samuel C. ; Singh, Ranveer ; Pradhan, K. ; Carlton, Jane M. ; Srivasatava, H. C. ; Eapen, Alex ; Sharma, S. K. / The use of mosquito repellents at three sites in India with declining malaria transmission : Surveys in the community and clinic. In: Parasites and Vectors. 2016 ; Vol. 9, No. 1.
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title = "The use of mosquito repellents at three sites in India with declining malaria transmission: Surveys in the community and clinic",
abstract = "Background: Repellents such as coils, vaporizers, mats and creams can be used to reduce the risk of malaria and other infectious diseases. Although evidence for their effectiveness is limited, they are advertised as providing an additional approach to mosquito control in combination with other strategies, e.g. insecticide-treated nets. We examined the use of repellents in India in an urban setting in Chennai (mainly Plasmodium vivax malaria), a peri-urban setting in Nadiad (both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria), and a more rural setting in Raurkela (mainly P. falciparum malaria). Methods: The use of repellents was examined at the household level during a census, and at the individual level in cross-sectional surveys and among patients visiting a clinic with fever or other symptoms. Factors associated with their use were examined in a multivariate analysis, and the association between malaria and the use of repellents was assessed among survey- and clinic participants. Results: Characteristics of participants differed by region, with more people of higher education present in Chennai. Use of repellents varied between 56-77 {\%} at the household level and between 32-78 {\%} at the individual level. Vaporizers were the main repellents used in Chennai, whereas coils were more common in Nadiad and Raurkela. In Chennai and Nadiad, vaporizers were more likely to be used in households with young male children. Vaporizer use was associated with higher socio-economic status (SES) in households in Chennai and Nadiad, whereas use of coils was greater in the lower SES strata. In Raurkela, there was a higher use of coils among the higher SES strata. Education was associated with the use of a repellent among survey participants in Chennai and clinic study participants in Chennai and Nadiad. Repellent use was associated with less malaria in the clinic study in Chennai and Raurkela, but not in the surveys, with the exception of the use of coils in Nadiad. Conclusions: Repellents are widely used in India. Their use is influenced by the level of education and SES. Information on effectiveness and guidance on choices may improve rational use.",
keywords = "Education, Mosquito control, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Repellents, Rural, Socio-economic status, Urban",
author = "{Van Eijk}, {Anna Maria} and Lalitha Ramanathapuram and Sutton, {Patrick L.} and Nandini Peddy and Sandhya Choubey and Stuti Mohanty and Aswin Asokan and Sangamithra Ravishankaran and Priya, {G. Sri Lakshmi} and Johnson, {Justin Amala} and Sangeetha Velayutham and Deena Kanagaraj and Ankita Patel and Nisha Desai and Nikunj Tandel and Sullivan, {Steven A.} and Wassmer, {Samuel C.} and Ranveer Singh and K. Pradhan and Carlton, {Jane M.} and Srivasatava, {H. C.} and Alex Eapen and Sharma, {S. K.}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The use of mosquito repellents at three sites in India with declining malaria transmission

T2 - Surveys in the community and clinic

AU - Van Eijk, Anna Maria

AU - Ramanathapuram, Lalitha

AU - Sutton, Patrick L.

AU - Peddy, Nandini

AU - Choubey, Sandhya

AU - Mohanty, Stuti

AU - Asokan, Aswin

AU - Ravishankaran, Sangamithra

AU - Priya, G. Sri Lakshmi

AU - Johnson, Justin Amala

AU - Velayutham, Sangeetha

AU - Kanagaraj, Deena

AU - Patel, Ankita

AU - Desai, Nisha

AU - Tandel, Nikunj

AU - Sullivan, Steven A.

AU - Wassmer, Samuel C.

AU - Singh, Ranveer

AU - Pradhan, K.

AU - Carlton, Jane M.

AU - Srivasatava, H. C.

AU - Eapen, Alex

AU - Sharma, S. K.

PY - 2016/7/27

Y1 - 2016/7/27

N2 - Background: Repellents such as coils, vaporizers, mats and creams can be used to reduce the risk of malaria and other infectious diseases. Although evidence for their effectiveness is limited, they are advertised as providing an additional approach to mosquito control in combination with other strategies, e.g. insecticide-treated nets. We examined the use of repellents in India in an urban setting in Chennai (mainly Plasmodium vivax malaria), a peri-urban setting in Nadiad (both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria), and a more rural setting in Raurkela (mainly P. falciparum malaria). Methods: The use of repellents was examined at the household level during a census, and at the individual level in cross-sectional surveys and among patients visiting a clinic with fever or other symptoms. Factors associated with their use were examined in a multivariate analysis, and the association between malaria and the use of repellents was assessed among survey- and clinic participants. Results: Characteristics of participants differed by region, with more people of higher education present in Chennai. Use of repellents varied between 56-77 % at the household level and between 32-78 % at the individual level. Vaporizers were the main repellents used in Chennai, whereas coils were more common in Nadiad and Raurkela. In Chennai and Nadiad, vaporizers were more likely to be used in households with young male children. Vaporizer use was associated with higher socio-economic status (SES) in households in Chennai and Nadiad, whereas use of coils was greater in the lower SES strata. In Raurkela, there was a higher use of coils among the higher SES strata. Education was associated with the use of a repellent among survey participants in Chennai and clinic study participants in Chennai and Nadiad. Repellent use was associated with less malaria in the clinic study in Chennai and Raurkela, but not in the surveys, with the exception of the use of coils in Nadiad. Conclusions: Repellents are widely used in India. Their use is influenced by the level of education and SES. Information on effectiveness and guidance on choices may improve rational use.

AB - Background: Repellents such as coils, vaporizers, mats and creams can be used to reduce the risk of malaria and other infectious diseases. Although evidence for their effectiveness is limited, they are advertised as providing an additional approach to mosquito control in combination with other strategies, e.g. insecticide-treated nets. We examined the use of repellents in India in an urban setting in Chennai (mainly Plasmodium vivax malaria), a peri-urban setting in Nadiad (both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria), and a more rural setting in Raurkela (mainly P. falciparum malaria). Methods: The use of repellents was examined at the household level during a census, and at the individual level in cross-sectional surveys and among patients visiting a clinic with fever or other symptoms. Factors associated with their use were examined in a multivariate analysis, and the association between malaria and the use of repellents was assessed among survey- and clinic participants. Results: Characteristics of participants differed by region, with more people of higher education present in Chennai. Use of repellents varied between 56-77 % at the household level and between 32-78 % at the individual level. Vaporizers were the main repellents used in Chennai, whereas coils were more common in Nadiad and Raurkela. In Chennai and Nadiad, vaporizers were more likely to be used in households with young male children. Vaporizer use was associated with higher socio-economic status (SES) in households in Chennai and Nadiad, whereas use of coils was greater in the lower SES strata. In Raurkela, there was a higher use of coils among the higher SES strata. Education was associated with the use of a repellent among survey participants in Chennai and clinic study participants in Chennai and Nadiad. Repellent use was associated with less malaria in the clinic study in Chennai and Raurkela, but not in the surveys, with the exception of the use of coils in Nadiad. Conclusions: Repellents are widely used in India. Their use is influenced by the level of education and SES. Information on effectiveness and guidance on choices may improve rational use.

KW - Education

KW - Mosquito control

KW - Plasmodium falciparum

KW - Plasmodium vivax

KW - Repellents

KW - Rural

KW - Socio-economic status

KW - Urban

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