The unique type Ib supernova 2005bf

A WN star explosion model for peculiar light curves and spectra

N. Tominaga, M. Tanaka, K. Nomoto, P. A. Mazzali, J. Deng, K. Maeda, H. Umeda, M. Modjaz, M. Hicken, P. Challis, R. P. Kirshner, W. M. Wood-Vasey, C. H. Blake, J. S. Bloom, M. F. Skrutskie, A. Szentgyorgyi, E. E. Falco, N. Inada, T. Minezaki, Y. Yoshii & 5 others K. Kawabata, M. Iye, G. C. Anupama, D. K. Sahu, T. P. Prabhu

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Observations and modeling for the light curve (LC) and spectra of supernova (SN) 2005bf are reported. This SN showed unique features: the LC had two maxima, and declined rapidly after the second maximum, while the spectra showed strengthening He lines whose velocity increased with time. The double-peaked LC can be reproduced by a double-peaked 56Ni distribution, with most 56Ni at low velocity and a small amount at high velocity. The rapid postmaximum decline requires a large fraction of the γ-rays to escape from the 56Ni-dominated region, possibly because of low-density "holes." The presence of Balmer lines in the spectrum suggests that the He layer of the progenitor was substantially intact. Increasing γ-ray deposition in the He layer due to enhanced γ-ray escape from the 56Ni-dominated region may explain both the delayed strengthening and the increasing velocity of the He lines. The SN has massive ejecta (∼6-7 M⊙), normal kinetic energy [∼(1.0-1.5) ™ 1051 ergs], a high peak bolometric luminosity (∼5 ™ 1042 ergs s -1) for an epoch as late as ∼ 40 days, and a large 56Ni mass (∼0.32 M⊙). These properties and the presence of a small amount of H suggest that the progenitor was initially massive (M ∼ 25-30 M⊙) and had lost most of its H envelope, and was possibly a WN star. The double-peaked 56Ni distribution suggests that the explosion may have formed jets that did not reach the He layer. The properties of SN 2005bf resemble those of the explosion of Cassiopeia A.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume633
    Issue number2 II
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Nov 10 2005

    Fingerprint

    light curve
    supernovae
    explosions
    explosion
    stars
    rays
    erg
    escape
    Cassiopeia A
    ejecta
    kinetic energy
    low speed
    envelopes
    luminosity
    time measurement
    modeling
    distribution

    Keywords

    • Stars: Wolf-Rayet
    • Supernovae: general
    • Supernovae: individual (Cassiopeia A, SN 2005bf)

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Tominaga, N., Tanaka, M., Nomoto, K., Mazzali, P. A., Deng, J., Maeda, K., ... Prabhu, T. P. (2005). The unique type Ib supernova 2005bf: A WN star explosion model for peculiar light curves and spectra. Astrophysical Journal, 633(2 II). https://doi.org/10.1086/498570

    The unique type Ib supernova 2005bf : A WN star explosion model for peculiar light curves and spectra. / Tominaga, N.; Tanaka, M.; Nomoto, K.; Mazzali, P. A.; Deng, J.; Maeda, K.; Umeda, H.; Modjaz, M.; Hicken, M.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Blake, C. H.; Bloom, J. S.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Falco, E. E.; Inada, N.; Minezaki, T.; Yoshii, Y.; Kawabata, K.; Iye, M.; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, D. K.; Prabhu, T. P.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 633, No. 2 II, 10.11.2005.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Tominaga, N, Tanaka, M, Nomoto, K, Mazzali, PA, Deng, J, Maeda, K, Umeda, H, Modjaz, M, Hicken, M, Challis, P, Kirshner, RP, Wood-Vasey, WM, Blake, CH, Bloom, JS, Skrutskie, MF, Szentgyorgyi, A, Falco, EE, Inada, N, Minezaki, T, Yoshii, Y, Kawabata, K, Iye, M, Anupama, GC, Sahu, DK & Prabhu, TP 2005, 'The unique type Ib supernova 2005bf: A WN star explosion model for peculiar light curves and spectra', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 633, no. 2 II. https://doi.org/10.1086/498570
    Tominaga, N. ; Tanaka, M. ; Nomoto, K. ; Mazzali, P. A. ; Deng, J. ; Maeda, K. ; Umeda, H. ; Modjaz, M. ; Hicken, M. ; Challis, P. ; Kirshner, R. P. ; Wood-Vasey, W. M. ; Blake, C. H. ; Bloom, J. S. ; Skrutskie, M. F. ; Szentgyorgyi, A. ; Falco, E. E. ; Inada, N. ; Minezaki, T. ; Yoshii, Y. ; Kawabata, K. ; Iye, M. ; Anupama, G. C. ; Sahu, D. K. ; Prabhu, T. P. / The unique type Ib supernova 2005bf : A WN star explosion model for peculiar light curves and spectra. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2005 ; Vol. 633, No. 2 II.
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    T1 - The unique type Ib supernova 2005bf

    T2 - A WN star explosion model for peculiar light curves and spectra

    AU - Tominaga, N.

    AU - Tanaka, M.

    AU - Nomoto, K.

    AU - Mazzali, P. A.

    AU - Deng, J.

    AU - Maeda, K.

    AU - Umeda, H.

    AU - Modjaz, M.

    AU - Hicken, M.

    AU - Challis, P.

    AU - Kirshner, R. P.

    AU - Wood-Vasey, W. M.

    AU - Blake, C. H.

    AU - Bloom, J. S.

    AU - Skrutskie, M. F.

    AU - Szentgyorgyi, A.

    AU - Falco, E. E.

    AU - Inada, N.

    AU - Minezaki, T.

    AU - Yoshii, Y.

    AU - Kawabata, K.

    AU - Iye, M.

    AU - Anupama, G. C.

    AU - Sahu, D. K.

    AU - Prabhu, T. P.

    PY - 2005/11/10

    Y1 - 2005/11/10

    N2 - Observations and modeling for the light curve (LC) and spectra of supernova (SN) 2005bf are reported. This SN showed unique features: the LC had two maxima, and declined rapidly after the second maximum, while the spectra showed strengthening He lines whose velocity increased with time. The double-peaked LC can be reproduced by a double-peaked 56Ni distribution, with most 56Ni at low velocity and a small amount at high velocity. The rapid postmaximum decline requires a large fraction of the γ-rays to escape from the 56Ni-dominated region, possibly because of low-density "holes." The presence of Balmer lines in the spectrum suggests that the He layer of the progenitor was substantially intact. Increasing γ-ray deposition in the He layer due to enhanced γ-ray escape from the 56Ni-dominated region may explain both the delayed strengthening and the increasing velocity of the He lines. The SN has massive ejecta (∼6-7 M⊙), normal kinetic energy [∼(1.0-1.5) ™ 1051 ergs], a high peak bolometric luminosity (∼5 ™ 1042 ergs s -1) for an epoch as late as ∼ 40 days, and a large 56Ni mass (∼0.32 M⊙). These properties and the presence of a small amount of H suggest that the progenitor was initially massive (M ∼ 25-30 M⊙) and had lost most of its H envelope, and was possibly a WN star. The double-peaked 56Ni distribution suggests that the explosion may have formed jets that did not reach the He layer. The properties of SN 2005bf resemble those of the explosion of Cassiopeia A.

    AB - Observations and modeling for the light curve (LC) and spectra of supernova (SN) 2005bf are reported. This SN showed unique features: the LC had two maxima, and declined rapidly after the second maximum, while the spectra showed strengthening He lines whose velocity increased with time. The double-peaked LC can be reproduced by a double-peaked 56Ni distribution, with most 56Ni at low velocity and a small amount at high velocity. The rapid postmaximum decline requires a large fraction of the γ-rays to escape from the 56Ni-dominated region, possibly because of low-density "holes." The presence of Balmer lines in the spectrum suggests that the He layer of the progenitor was substantially intact. Increasing γ-ray deposition in the He layer due to enhanced γ-ray escape from the 56Ni-dominated region may explain both the delayed strengthening and the increasing velocity of the He lines. The SN has massive ejecta (∼6-7 M⊙), normal kinetic energy [∼(1.0-1.5) ™ 1051 ergs], a high peak bolometric luminosity (∼5 ™ 1042 ergs s -1) for an epoch as late as ∼ 40 days, and a large 56Ni mass (∼0.32 M⊙). These properties and the presence of a small amount of H suggest that the progenitor was initially massive (M ∼ 25-30 M⊙) and had lost most of its H envelope, and was possibly a WN star. The double-peaked 56Ni distribution suggests that the explosion may have formed jets that did not reach the He layer. The properties of SN 2005bf resemble those of the explosion of Cassiopeia A.

    KW - Stars: Wolf-Rayet

    KW - Supernovae: general

    KW - Supernovae: individual (Cassiopeia A, SN 2005bf)

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