THE SPECTRAL SN-GRB CONNECTION: SYSTEMATIC SPECTRAL COMPARISONS between TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE and BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE with and WITHOUT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

Maryam Modjaz, Yuqian Q. Liu, Federica B. Bianco, Or Graur

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and 11 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. Using a number of novel methods, we analyze a total of 407 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra of Modjaz et al (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs, and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs. We find that SN 1994I is not a typical SN Ic, contrasting the general view, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities using a new method described here and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher absorption velocities, as well as broader line widths than SNe without observed GRBs. In addition, we search for correlations between SN-GRB spectral properties and the energies of their accompanying GRBs. Finally, we show that the absence of clear He lines in optical spectra of SNe Ic-bl, and in particular of SN-GRBs, is not due to them being too smeared-out due to the high velocities present in the ejecta. This implies that the progenitor stars of SN-GRBs are probably free of the He-layer, in addition to being H-free, which puts strong constraints on the stellar evolutionary paths needed to produce such SN-GRB progenitors at the observed low metallicities.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number108
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume832
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

    Fingerprint

    gamma ray bursts
    ejecta
    comparison
    metallicity
    supernovae
    explosions
    optical spectrum
    explosion
    probe
    stars
    probes
    energy

    Keywords

    • gamma-ray burst: general
    • gamma-ray burst: individual (GRB-980425, GRB-030329, GRB-060218, GRB-100316D, GRB-120422A, GRB-130427A, GRB-130702A, GRB-130215A)
    • supernovae: general
    • supernovae: individual (SN-1994I, SN-2004aw, SN-2007gr, SN-1998bw, SN-2003dh, SN-2006aj, SN-2009bb, SN-2010bh, SN-2012ap, SN-2012bz, SN-2013cq, SN-2013dx, SN-2013ez)

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics
    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    THE SPECTRAL SN-GRB CONNECTION : SYSTEMATIC SPECTRAL COMPARISONS between TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE and BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE with and WITHOUT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. / Modjaz, Maryam; Liu, Yuqian Q.; Bianco, Federica B.; Graur, Or.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 832, No. 2, 108, 01.12.2016.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    abstract = "We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and 11 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. Using a number of novel methods, we analyze a total of 407 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra of Modjaz et al (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs, and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs. We find that SN 1994I is not a typical SN Ic, contrasting the general view, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities using a new method described here and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher absorption velocities, as well as broader line widths than SNe without observed GRBs. In addition, we search for correlations between SN-GRB spectral properties and the energies of their accompanying GRBs. Finally, we show that the absence of clear He lines in optical spectra of SNe Ic-bl, and in particular of SN-GRBs, is not due to them being too smeared-out due to the high velocities present in the ejecta. This implies that the progenitor stars of SN-GRBs are probably free of the He-layer, in addition to being H-free, which puts strong constraints on the stellar evolutionary paths needed to produce such SN-GRB progenitors at the observed low metallicities.",
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    author = "Maryam Modjaz and Liu, {Yuqian Q.} and Bianco, {Federica B.} and Or Graur",
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    AU - Modjaz, Maryam

    AU - Liu, Yuqian Q.

    AU - Bianco, Federica B.

    AU - Graur, Or

    PY - 2016/12/1

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    AB - We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and 11 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. Using a number of novel methods, we analyze a total of 407 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra of Modjaz et al (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs, and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs. We find that SN 1994I is not a typical SN Ic, contrasting the general view, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities using a new method described here and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher absorption velocities, as well as broader line widths than SNe without observed GRBs. In addition, we search for correlations between SN-GRB spectral properties and the energies of their accompanying GRBs. Finally, we show that the absence of clear He lines in optical spectra of SNe Ic-bl, and in particular of SN-GRBs, is not due to them being too smeared-out due to the high velocities present in the ejecta. This implies that the progenitor stars of SN-GRBs are probably free of the He-layer, in addition to being H-free, which puts strong constraints on the stellar evolutionary paths needed to produce such SN-GRB progenitors at the observed low metallicities.

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    KW - supernovae: general

    KW - supernovae: individual (SN-1994I, SN-2004aw, SN-2007gr, SN-1998bw, SN-2003dh, SN-2006aj, SN-2009bb, SN-2010bh, SN-2012ap, SN-2012bz, SN-2013cq, SN-2013dx, SN-2013ez)

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