The Second Flight of the Sunrise Balloon-borne Solar Observatory: Overview of Instrument Updates, the Flight, the Data, and First Results

S. K. Solanki, T. L. Riethmüller, P. Barthol, S. Danilovic, W. Deutsch, H. P. Doerr, A. Feller, A. Gandorfer, D. Germerott, Laurent Gizon, B. Grauf, K. Heerlein, J. Hirzberger, M. Kolleck, A. Lagg, R. Meller, G. Tomasch, M. Van Noort, J. Blanco Rodríguez, J. L.Gasent BlesaM. Balaguer Jiménez, J. C.Del Toro Iniesta, A. C.López Jiménez, D. Orozco Suarez, T. Berkefeld, C. Halbgewachs, W. Schmidt, A. Álvarez-Herrero, L. Sabau-Graziati, I. Pérez Grande, V. Martínez Pillet, G. Card, R. Centeno, M. Knölker, A. Lecinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory, consisting of a 1 m aperture telescope that provides a stabilized image to a UV filter imager and an imaging vector polarimeter, carried out its second science flight in 2013 June. It provided observations of parts of active regions at high spatial resolution, including the first high-resolution images in the Mg ii k line. The obtained data are of very high quality, with the best UV images reaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at 3000 after Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution reconstruction accounting for phase-diversity information. Here a brief update is given of the instruments and the data reduction techniques, which includes an inversion of the polarimetric data. Mainly those aspects that evolved compared with the first flight are described. A tabular overview of the observations is given. In addition, an example time series of a part of the emerging active region NOAA AR 11768 observed relatively close to disk center is described and discussed in some detail. The observations cover the pores in the trailing polarity of the active region, as well as the polarity inversion line where flux emergence was ongoing and a small flare-like brightening occurred in the course of the time series. The pores are found to contain magnetic field strengths ranging up to 2500 G, and while large pores are clearly darker and cooler than the quiet Sun in all layers of the photosphere, the temperature and brightness of small pores approach or even exceed those of the quiet Sun in the upper photosphere.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume229
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

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Keywords

  • Sun: chromosphere
  • Sun: faculae, plages
  • Sun: magnetic fields
  • Sun: photosphere
  • sunspots
  • techniques: polarimetric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Solanki, S. K., Riethmüller, T. L., Barthol, P., Danilovic, S., Deutsch, W., Doerr, H. P., Feller, A., Gandorfer, A., Germerott, D., Gizon, L., Grauf, B., Heerlein, K., Hirzberger, J., Kolleck, M., Lagg, A., Meller, R., Tomasch, G., Noort, M. V., Rodríguez, J. B., ... Lecinski, A. (2017). The Second Flight of the Sunrise Balloon-borne Solar Observatory: Overview of Instrument Updates, the Flight, the Data, and First Results. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, 229(1), [2]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4365/229/1/2