The role of mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of ethnic-racial socialization in shaping ethnic-racial identity among early adolescent boys and girls

Diane Hughes, Carolin Hagelskamp, Niobe Way, Monica D. Foust

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization (cultural socialization and preparation for bias) were evaluated alongside three dimensions of ethnic-racial identity (exploration, affirmation and belonging, and behavioral engagement). Mothers' reports of their cultural socialization predicted adolescents' reports, but only adolescents' reports predicted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes. Mothers' reports of preparation for bias predicted boys' but not girls' reports of preparation for bias. Again, only adolescents' reports of preparation for bias predicted their ethnic-racial identity. Thus, several gender differences in relationships emerged, with mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of cultural socialization, in particular, playing a more important role in girls' than in boys' identity processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)605-626
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Youth and Adolescence
Volume38
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2009

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Socialization
socialization
Mothers
adolescent
trend
gender-specific factors

Keywords

  • Early adolescence
  • Ethnic identity
  • Ethnic minorities
  • Ethnic socialization
  • Gender differences
  • Racial identity
  • Racial socialization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "The role of mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of ethnic-racial socialization in shaping ethnic-racial identity among early adolescent boys and girls",
abstract = "The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49{\%} boys, 51{\%} girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization (cultural socialization and preparation for bias) were evaluated alongside three dimensions of ethnic-racial identity (exploration, affirmation and belonging, and behavioral engagement). Mothers' reports of their cultural socialization predicted adolescents' reports, but only adolescents' reports predicted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes. Mothers' reports of preparation for bias predicted boys' but not girls' reports of preparation for bias. Again, only adolescents' reports of preparation for bias predicted their ethnic-racial identity. Thus, several gender differences in relationships emerged, with mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of cultural socialization, in particular, playing a more important role in girls' than in boys' identity processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research.",
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