The relational self: Closeness to ingroups depends on who they are, culture, and the type of closeness

James S. Uleman, Eun Rhee, Nenshad Bardoliwalla, Gün Semin, Midori Toyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Cultural differences in individualism and collectivism (I-C) describe important variations in how the self relates to others, but existing scales may be too broadband to precisely measure this aspect of I-C. They also do not distinguish among particular ingroups and types of interdependence with them. The Circles of Closeness scale addresses these limitations. Initial results from Euro-American, Asian-American, Dutch, Turkish, and Japanese samples of college students are presented. The scales have high alpha reliability. Different results were obtained for three ingroups - immediate family, relatives, and friends - and six closeness types - emotional, supportive, identity, reputational, similarity, and harmony. These factors significantly interacted with each other, arguing for a more differentiated view of I-C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalAsian Journal of Social Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2000


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Social Sciences(all)

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