The relational self

Closeness to ingroups depends on who they are, culture, and the type of closeness

James Uleman, Eun Rhee, Nenshad Bardoliwalla, Gün Semin, Midori Toyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cultural differences in individualism and collectivism (I-C) describe important variations in how the self relates to others, but existing scales may be too broadband to precisely measure this aspect of I-C. They also do not distinguish among particular ingroups and types of interdependence with them. The Circles of Closeness scale addresses these limitations. Initial results from Euro-American, Asian-American, Dutch, Turkish, and Japanese samples of college students are presented. The scales have high alpha reliability. Different results were obtained for three ingroups - immediate family, relatives, and friends - and six closeness types - emotional, supportive, identity, reputational, similarity, and harmony. These factors significantly interacted with each other, arguing for a more differentiated view of I-C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalAsian Journal of Social Psychology
Volume3
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2000

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collectivism
individualism
interdependence
cultural difference
Asian Americans
student
Students

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Social Psychology

Cite this

The relational self : Closeness to ingroups depends on who they are, culture, and the type of closeness. / Uleman, James; Rhee, Eun; Bardoliwalla, Nenshad; Semin, Gün; Toyama, Midori.

In: Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 04.2000, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Uleman, J, Rhee, E, Bardoliwalla, N, Semin, G & Toyama, M 2000, 'The relational self: Closeness to ingroups depends on who they are, culture, and the type of closeness', Asian Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-17.
Uleman, James ; Rhee, Eun ; Bardoliwalla, Nenshad ; Semin, Gün ; Toyama, Midori. / The relational self : Closeness to ingroups depends on who they are, culture, and the type of closeness. In: Asian Journal of Social Psychology. 2000 ; Vol. 3, No. 1. pp. 1-17.
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