The pediatric burden of disease from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in low and middle income countries

Kevin Chatham-Stephens, Jack Caravanos, Bret Ericson, Philip Landrigan, Richard Fuller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The impact of lead from toxic waste sites on children in low and middle income countries has not been calculated due to a lack of exposure data. We sought to calculate this impact in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Materials and methods: Using an Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, we converted soil and drinking water lead levels from sites in the Blacksmith Institute[U+05F3]s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) into mean blood lead levels (BLLs). We then calculated the incidence of mild mental retardation (MMR) and DALYs resulting from these BLLs. Results: The TSIP included 200 sites in 31 countries with soil (n=132) or drinking water (n=68) lead levels, representing 779,989 children younger than 4 years of age potentially exposed to lead. Environmental lead levels produced a range of BLLs from 1.56 to 104.71. μg/dL. These BLLs equated to an estimated loss of 5.41-8.23 IQ points, resulting in an incidence of MMR of 6.03 per 1000 population and 76.1 DALYs per 1000 population. Discussion: Soil and water lead levels at toxic waste sites predict BLLs that lower the intelligence quotient (IQ), with the resulting MMR potentially limiting individual- and country-level development. The preventable burden of disease produced by these sites highlights the need for toxic waste sites to be systematically identified, evaluated, and remediated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)379-383
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume132
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Toxic materials
Pediatrics
Poisons
income
Blood
blood
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
disability
Intellectual Disability
Soil
Intelligence
Soils
Drinking Water
drinking water
development level
Incidence
Lead
exposure
toxic waste
Population

Keywords

  • Blood lead level
  • Children
  • Disability adjusted life year
  • Low and middle income country
  • Toxic waste site

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

The pediatric burden of disease from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in low and middle income countries. / Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Landrigan, Philip; Fuller, Richard.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 132, 2014, p. 379-383.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chatham-Stephens, Kevin ; Caravanos, Jack ; Ericson, Bret ; Landrigan, Philip ; Fuller, Richard. / The pediatric burden of disease from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in low and middle income countries. In: Environmental Research. 2014 ; Vol. 132. pp. 379-383.
@article{9311dd5815224aeda99cc9e0b5f697f5,
title = "The pediatric burden of disease from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in low and middle income countries",
abstract = "Background: The impact of lead from toxic waste sites on children in low and middle income countries has not been calculated due to a lack of exposure data. We sought to calculate this impact in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Materials and methods: Using an Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, we converted soil and drinking water lead levels from sites in the Blacksmith Institute[U+05F3]s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) into mean blood lead levels (BLLs). We then calculated the incidence of mild mental retardation (MMR) and DALYs resulting from these BLLs. Results: The TSIP included 200 sites in 31 countries with soil (n=132) or drinking water (n=68) lead levels, representing 779,989 children younger than 4 years of age potentially exposed to lead. Environmental lead levels produced a range of BLLs from 1.56 to 104.71. μg/dL. These BLLs equated to an estimated loss of 5.41-8.23 IQ points, resulting in an incidence of MMR of 6.03 per 1000 population and 76.1 DALYs per 1000 population. Discussion: Soil and water lead levels at toxic waste sites predict BLLs that lower the intelligence quotient (IQ), with the resulting MMR potentially limiting individual- and country-level development. The preventable burden of disease produced by these sites highlights the need for toxic waste sites to be systematically identified, evaluated, and remediated.",
keywords = "Blood lead level, Children, Disability adjusted life year, Low and middle income country, Toxic waste site",
author = "Kevin Chatham-Stephens and Jack Caravanos and Bret Ericson and Philip Landrigan and Richard Fuller",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.018",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "132",
pages = "379--383",
journal = "Environmental Research",
issn = "0013-9351",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The pediatric burden of disease from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in low and middle income countries

AU - Chatham-Stephens, Kevin

AU - Caravanos, Jack

AU - Ericson, Bret

AU - Landrigan, Philip

AU - Fuller, Richard

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Background: The impact of lead from toxic waste sites on children in low and middle income countries has not been calculated due to a lack of exposure data. We sought to calculate this impact in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Materials and methods: Using an Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, we converted soil and drinking water lead levels from sites in the Blacksmith Institute[U+05F3]s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) into mean blood lead levels (BLLs). We then calculated the incidence of mild mental retardation (MMR) and DALYs resulting from these BLLs. Results: The TSIP included 200 sites in 31 countries with soil (n=132) or drinking water (n=68) lead levels, representing 779,989 children younger than 4 years of age potentially exposed to lead. Environmental lead levels produced a range of BLLs from 1.56 to 104.71. μg/dL. These BLLs equated to an estimated loss of 5.41-8.23 IQ points, resulting in an incidence of MMR of 6.03 per 1000 population and 76.1 DALYs per 1000 population. Discussion: Soil and water lead levels at toxic waste sites predict BLLs that lower the intelligence quotient (IQ), with the resulting MMR potentially limiting individual- and country-level development. The preventable burden of disease produced by these sites highlights the need for toxic waste sites to be systematically identified, evaluated, and remediated.

AB - Background: The impact of lead from toxic waste sites on children in low and middle income countries has not been calculated due to a lack of exposure data. We sought to calculate this impact in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Materials and methods: Using an Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, we converted soil and drinking water lead levels from sites in the Blacksmith Institute[U+05F3]s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) into mean blood lead levels (BLLs). We then calculated the incidence of mild mental retardation (MMR) and DALYs resulting from these BLLs. Results: The TSIP included 200 sites in 31 countries with soil (n=132) or drinking water (n=68) lead levels, representing 779,989 children younger than 4 years of age potentially exposed to lead. Environmental lead levels produced a range of BLLs from 1.56 to 104.71. μg/dL. These BLLs equated to an estimated loss of 5.41-8.23 IQ points, resulting in an incidence of MMR of 6.03 per 1000 population and 76.1 DALYs per 1000 population. Discussion: Soil and water lead levels at toxic waste sites predict BLLs that lower the intelligence quotient (IQ), with the resulting MMR potentially limiting individual- and country-level development. The preventable burden of disease produced by these sites highlights the need for toxic waste sites to be systematically identified, evaluated, and remediated.

KW - Blood lead level

KW - Children

KW - Disability adjusted life year

KW - Low and middle income country

KW - Toxic waste site

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84901008488&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84901008488&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.018

DO - 10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.018

M3 - Article

C2 - 24853976

AN - SCOPUS:84901008488

VL - 132

SP - 379

EP - 383

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

ER -