The occipital torus and developmental age of Sangiran-3

Susan Anton, Jens Lorenz Franzen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Since its discovery in 1938 Sangiran-3 has been considered a juvenile Pithecanthropus (Homo) erectus, and therefore, excluded from studies of adult H. erectus. Although morphological features align Sangiran-3 with H. erectus, its age designation rests on an unconvincing reconstruction of the occipital torus and lack of sutural fusion. Evaluation of the occipital shows the original reconstruction is faulty and that the current midline occipital torus is actually the right lateral torus. The new reconstruction of Sangiran-3 results in midline toral morphology and development that is comparable with that in Sangiran-2. Compared with juvenile and adult H. erectus and Homo sapiens Sangiran-3 has three fully developed layers of vault bone with localized hypertrophy of the outer table into a sagittal keel, bregmatic eminence, and occipital torus. Sangiran-3's absolute vault thickness is also within the range of adult H. erectus. In addition, the coronal suture is fully interdigitated and sagittal sutural complexity is consistent with adult H. erectus. Sangiran-3's parietal sagittal contours are indistinguishable from adult H. erectus, whereas sagittal vault contours of juvenile H. erectus are usually more rounded than adults. These features indicate that Sangiran-3 is best considered a young adult H. erectus and should be included in metric and non-metric analyses of this taxon.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)599-610
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Human Evolution
    Volume33
    Issue number5
    StatePublished - 1997

    Fingerprint

    reconstruction
    Homo
    sutures
    young adults
    hypertrophy
    young adult
    bone
    bones
    lack
    evaluation
    Vault
    Homo sapiens
    Suture
    Fusion
    Thickness
    Layer
    Parietal
    Designation
    Taxon
    Young Adults

    Keywords

    • Cranial thickness
    • Homo erectus
    • Sutural complexity
    • Vault development

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
    • Education
    • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

    Cite this

    Anton, S., & Franzen, J. L. (1997). The occipital torus and developmental age of Sangiran-3. Journal of Human Evolution, 33(5), 599-610.

    The occipital torus and developmental age of Sangiran-3. / Anton, Susan; Franzen, Jens Lorenz.

    In: Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 33, No. 5, 1997, p. 599-610.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Anton, S & Franzen, JL 1997, 'The occipital torus and developmental age of Sangiran-3', Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 599-610.
    Anton, Susan ; Franzen, Jens Lorenz. / The occipital torus and developmental age of Sangiran-3. In: Journal of Human Evolution. 1997 ; Vol. 33, No. 5. pp. 599-610.
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