The molecular-genetics of nitrogen assimilation into amino acids in higher plants

H. M. Lam, K. T. Coschigano, I. C. Oliveira, R. Melo-Oliveira, G. M. Coruzzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Nitrogen assimilation is a vital process controlling plant growth and development. Inorganic nitrogen is assimilated into the amino acids glutamine, glutamate, asparagine, and aspartate, which serve as important nitrogen carriers in plants. The enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and asparagine synthetase (AS) are responsible for the biosynthesis of these nitrogen-carrying amino acids. Biochemical studies have revealed the existence of multiple isoenzymes for each of these enzymes. Recent molecular analyses demonstrate that each enzyme is encoded by a gene family wherein individual members encode distinct isoenzymes that are differentially regulated by environmental stimuli, metabolic control, developmental control, and tissue/cell-type specificity. We review the recent progress in using molecular-genetic approaches to delineate the regulatory mechanisms controlling nitrogen assimilation into amino acids and to define the physiological role of each isoenzyme involved in this metabolic pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-593
Number of pages25
JournalAnnual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology
Volume47
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1996

Fingerprint

molecular genetics
Molecular Biology
assimilation (physiology)
Nitrogen
Amino Acids
amino acids
Isoenzymes
nitrogen
isozymes
Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
Enzymes
Glutamate Synthase
enzymes
aspartate-ammonia ligase
glutamate synthase (ferredoxin)
Glutamate Dehydrogenase
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase
Organ Specificity
Plant Development
glutamate dehydrogenase

Keywords

  • Asparagine
  • Aspartate
  • Gene regulation
  • Glutamate
  • Glutamine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

The molecular-genetics of nitrogen assimilation into amino acids in higher plants. / Lam, H. M.; Coschigano, K. T.; Oliveira, I. C.; Melo-Oliveira, R.; Coruzzi, G. M.

In: Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1996, p. 569-593.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lam, H. M. ; Coschigano, K. T. ; Oliveira, I. C. ; Melo-Oliveira, R. ; Coruzzi, G. M. / The molecular-genetics of nitrogen assimilation into amino acids in higher plants. In: Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 1996 ; Vol. 47, No. 1. pp. 569-593.
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