The LIM homeodomain protein Lim-1 is widely expressed in neural, neural crest and mesoderm derivatives in vertebrate development

Alex A. Karavanov, Jean Pierre Saint-Jeannet, Irina Karavanova, Masanori Taira, Igor B. Dawid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Polyclonal antibodies to Xlim-1 homeodomain protein of Xenopus laevis were used to study the developmental expression pattern of this protein in Xenopus, rat and mouse. Western blotting of embryo extracts injected with different Xlim-1 constructs confirmed the specificity of the antibody. Beginning at the gastrula stage, Xlim-1 protein was detected in three cell lineages: (i) notochord, (ii) pronephros and (iii) certain regions of the central nervous system, in agreement with earlier studies of the expression of Xlim-1 RNA. In addition, several new locations of Xlim-1 expression were found, including the olfactory organ, retina, otic vesicle, dorsal root ganglia and adrenal gland. Similar expression patterns were seen for the Lim-1 protein in frog and rodent tissues. These observations implicate the Xlim-1 gene in the specification of multiple cell lineages, particularly within the nervous system, and emphasize the conserved nature of the role of this gene in different vertebrate animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)453-461
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Developmental Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2 1996



  • Homeodomain
  • LIM domain
  • Lim-1 antibody
  • Xenopus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology

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