The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS: In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16 vs 7), esophageal cancer (ASIR, 9 vs 4; ASDR, 9 vs 4), cervical cancer (ASIR, 8 vs 5; ASDR, 4 vs 2), lip and oral cavity cancer (ASIR, 7 vs 6; ASDR, 2 vs 2), and nasopharyngeal cancer (ASIR, 1.5 vs 0.4; ASDR, 1.2 vs 0.3). Between 1990 and 2013, ASIRs for all cancers combined (except nonmelanoma skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma) increased by more than 10% in 113 countries and decreased by more than 10% in 12 of 188 countries. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cancer poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and incidence rates have increased in most countries since 1990. The trend is a particular threat to developing nations with health systems that are ill-equipped to deal with complex and expensive cancer treatments. The annual update on the Global Burden of Cancer will provide all stakeholders with timely estimates to guide policy efforts in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and palliation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)505-527
Number of pages23
JournalJAMA oncology
Volume1
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

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Incidence
Neoplasms
Mortality
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Cause of Death
Bronchi
Lung Neoplasms
Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms
Breast Neoplasms
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Mouth Neoplasms
Skin Neoplasms
Liver Neoplasms
Esophageal Neoplasms
Lip
Life Expectancy
Early Detection of Cancer
Developed Countries
Information Systems
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration (2015). The Global Burden of Cancer 2013. JAMA oncology, 1(4), 505-527. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0735

The Global Burden of Cancer 2013. / Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration.

In: JAMA oncology, Vol. 1, No. 4, 01.07.2015, p. 505-527.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration 2015, 'The Global Burden of Cancer 2013', JAMA oncology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 505-527. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0735
Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013. JAMA oncology. 2015 Jul 1;1(4):505-527. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0735
Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration. / The Global Burden of Cancer 2013. In: JAMA oncology. 2015 ; Vol. 1, No. 4. pp. 505-527.
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abstract = "IMPORTANCE: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS: In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16 vs 7), esophageal cancer (ASIR, 9 vs 4; ASDR, 9 vs 4), cervical cancer (ASIR, 8 vs 5; ASDR, 4 vs 2), lip and oral cavity cancer (ASIR, 7 vs 6; ASDR, 2 vs 2), and nasopharyngeal cancer (ASIR, 1.5 vs 0.4; ASDR, 1.2 vs 0.3). Between 1990 and 2013, ASIRs for all cancers combined (except nonmelanoma skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma) increased by more than 10{\%} in 113 countries and decreased by more than 10{\%} in 12 of 188 countries. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cancer poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and incidence rates have increased in most countries since 1990. The trend is a particular threat to developing nations with health systems that are ill-equipped to deal with complex and expensive cancer treatments. The annual update on the Global Burden of Cancer will provide all stakeholders with timely estimates to guide policy efforts in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and palliation.",
author = "{Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration} and Christina Fitzmaurice and Daniel Dicker and Amanda Pain and Hannah Hamavid and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and MacIntyre, {Michael F.} and Christine Allen and Gillian Hansen and Rachel Woodbrook and Charles Wolfe and Hamadeh, {Randah R.} and Ami Moore and Andrea Werdecker and Gessner, {Bradford D.} and {Te Ao}, Braden and Brian McMahon and Chante Karimkhani and Chuanhua Yu and Cooke, {Graham S.} and Schwebel, {David C.} and Carpenter, {David O.} and Pereira, {David M.} and Denis Nash and Kazi, {Dhruv S.} and {De Leo}, Diego and Dietrich Plass and Ukwaja, {Kingsley N.} and Thurston, {George D.} and {Yun Jin}, Kim and Simard, {Edgar P.} and Edward Mills and Park, {Eun Kee} and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Gabrielle DeVeber and Carolyn Gotay and Gulfaraz Khan and Hosgood, {H. Dean} and Santos, {Itamar S.} and Leasher, {Janet L.} and Jasvinder Singh and James Leigh and Jonas, {Jost B.} and Juan Sanabria and Justin Beardsley and Jacobsen, {Kathryn H.} and Ken Takahashi and Franklin, {Richard C.} and Luca Ronfani and Marcella Montico and Raghib Ali",
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T1 - The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

AU - Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration

AU - Fitzmaurice, Christina

AU - Dicker, Daniel

AU - Pain, Amanda

AU - Hamavid, Hannah

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - MacIntyre, Michael F.

AU - Allen, Christine

AU - Hansen, Gillian

AU - Woodbrook, Rachel

AU - Wolfe, Charles

AU - Hamadeh, Randah R.

AU - Moore, Ami

AU - Werdecker, Andrea

AU - Gessner, Bradford D.

AU - Te Ao, Braden

AU - McMahon, Brian

AU - Karimkhani, Chante

AU - Yu, Chuanhua

AU - Cooke, Graham S.

AU - Schwebel, David C.

AU - Carpenter, David O.

AU - Pereira, David M.

AU - Nash, Denis

AU - Kazi, Dhruv S.

AU - De Leo, Diego

AU - Plass, Dietrich

AU - Ukwaja, Kingsley N.

AU - Thurston, George D.

AU - Yun Jin, Kim

AU - Simard, Edgar P.

AU - Mills, Edward

AU - Park, Eun Kee

AU - Catalá-López, Ferrán

AU - DeVeber, Gabrielle

AU - Gotay, Carolyn

AU - Khan, Gulfaraz

AU - Hosgood, H. Dean

AU - Santos, Itamar S.

AU - Leasher, Janet L.

AU - Singh, Jasvinder

AU - Leigh, James

AU - Jonas, Jost B.

AU - Sanabria, Juan

AU - Beardsley, Justin

AU - Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

AU - Takahashi, Ken

AU - Franklin, Richard C.

AU - Ronfani, Luca

AU - Montico, Marcella

AU - Ali, Raghib

PY - 2015/7/1

Y1 - 2015/7/1

N2 - IMPORTANCE: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS: In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16 vs 7), esophageal cancer (ASIR, 9 vs 4; ASDR, 9 vs 4), cervical cancer (ASIR, 8 vs 5; ASDR, 4 vs 2), lip and oral cavity cancer (ASIR, 7 vs 6; ASDR, 2 vs 2), and nasopharyngeal cancer (ASIR, 1.5 vs 0.4; ASDR, 1.2 vs 0.3). Between 1990 and 2013, ASIRs for all cancers combined (except nonmelanoma skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma) increased by more than 10% in 113 countries and decreased by more than 10% in 12 of 188 countries. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cancer poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and incidence rates have increased in most countries since 1990. The trend is a particular threat to developing nations with health systems that are ill-equipped to deal with complex and expensive cancer treatments. The annual update on the Global Burden of Cancer will provide all stakeholders with timely estimates to guide policy efforts in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and palliation.

AB - IMPORTANCE: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS: In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16 vs 7), esophageal cancer (ASIR, 9 vs 4; ASDR, 9 vs 4), cervical cancer (ASIR, 8 vs 5; ASDR, 4 vs 2), lip and oral cavity cancer (ASIR, 7 vs 6; ASDR, 2 vs 2), and nasopharyngeal cancer (ASIR, 1.5 vs 0.4; ASDR, 1.2 vs 0.3). Between 1990 and 2013, ASIRs for all cancers combined (except nonmelanoma skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma) increased by more than 10% in 113 countries and decreased by more than 10% in 12 of 188 countries. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cancer poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and incidence rates have increased in most countries since 1990. The trend is a particular threat to developing nations with health systems that are ill-equipped to deal with complex and expensive cancer treatments. The annual update on the Global Burden of Cancer will provide all stakeholders with timely estimates to guide policy efforts in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and palliation.

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SN - 2374-2437

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