The feasibility of short-wave infrared spectrometry in assessing water-to-cement ratio and density of hardened concrete

Zohreh Zahiri, Debra F. Laefer, Aoife Gowen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This paper describes the feasibility of using short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectrometry to classify concretes by their water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and predict their density. Concrete spectra of three w/c ratios (50%, 65%, 80%) were studied in the 1300–2200 nm range. A Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis model was developed from the spectra of 36 samples, resulting in an 89% correct classification for the 18 validation samples, thereby demonstrating that SWIR spectrometry can detect differences in initial w/c ratios for hardened concretes. Additionally, differences in density and compressive strength as a function of the w/c ratio could be indirectly estimated through SWIR spectrometry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)661-669
Number of pages9
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
StatePublished - Oct 10 2018



  • Concrete
  • Concrete
  • Density
  • Inspection
  • Non-destructive testing
  • Short-wave infrared
  • Spectrometry
  • Water-to-cement ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)

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