The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms

Ignacio Marn, Mark Siegal, Bruce S. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Dosage compensation is the process by which the expression levels of sex-linked genes are altered in one sex to offset a difference in sex-chromosome number between females and males of a heterogametic species. Degeneration of a sex-limited chromosome to produce heterogamety is a common, perhaps unavoidable, feature of sex-chromosome evolution. Selective pressure to equalize sex-linked gene expression in the two sexes accompanies degeneration, thereby driving the evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. Studies of model species indicate that what appear to be very different mechanisms have evolved in different lineages: the male X chromosome is hypertranscribed in drosophilid flies, both hermaphrodite X chromosomes are downregulated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and one X is inactivated in mammalian females. Moreover, comparative genomic studies demonstrate that the trans-acting factors (proteins and non-coding RNAs) that have been shown to mediate dosage compensation are unrelated among the three lineages. Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained. BioEssays 22:1106-1114, 2000. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1106-1114
Number of pages9
JournalBioEssays
Volume22
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

Fingerprint

Chromosomes
Sex Chromosomes
sex linkage
sex chromosomes
X chromosome
gender
X Chromosome
dosage
Diptera
Untranslated RNA
Trans-Activators
Caenorhabditis elegans
Gene expression
chromosome number
Genes
Nematoda
chromosomes
genomics
gene expression
Down-Regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

Cite this

The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. / Marn, Ignacio; Siegal, Mark; Baker, Bruce S.

In: BioEssays, Vol. 22, No. 12, 2000, p. 1106-1114.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marn, Ignacio ; Siegal, Mark ; Baker, Bruce S. / The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. In: BioEssays. 2000 ; Vol. 22, No. 12. pp. 1106-1114.
@article{d4150e3ecaa246afbeacb9fd432bcdb8,
title = "The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms",
abstract = "Dosage compensation is the process by which the expression levels of sex-linked genes are altered in one sex to offset a difference in sex-chromosome number between females and males of a heterogametic species. Degeneration of a sex-limited chromosome to produce heterogamety is a common, perhaps unavoidable, feature of sex-chromosome evolution. Selective pressure to equalize sex-linked gene expression in the two sexes accompanies degeneration, thereby driving the evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. Studies of model species indicate that what appear to be very different mechanisms have evolved in different lineages: the male X chromosome is hypertranscribed in drosophilid flies, both hermaphrodite X chromosomes are downregulated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and one X is inactivated in mammalian females. Moreover, comparative genomic studies demonstrate that the trans-acting factors (proteins and non-coding RNAs) that have been shown to mediate dosage compensation are unrelated among the three lineages. Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained. BioEssays 22:1106-1114, 2000. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.",
author = "Ignacio Marn and Mark Siegal and Baker, {Bruce S.}",
year = "2000",
doi = "10.1002/1521-1878(200012)22:12<1106::AID-BIES8>3.0.CO;2-W",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "22",
pages = "1106--1114",
journal = "BioEssays",
issn = "0265-9247",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms

AU - Marn, Ignacio

AU - Siegal, Mark

AU - Baker, Bruce S.

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - Dosage compensation is the process by which the expression levels of sex-linked genes are altered in one sex to offset a difference in sex-chromosome number between females and males of a heterogametic species. Degeneration of a sex-limited chromosome to produce heterogamety is a common, perhaps unavoidable, feature of sex-chromosome evolution. Selective pressure to equalize sex-linked gene expression in the two sexes accompanies degeneration, thereby driving the evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. Studies of model species indicate that what appear to be very different mechanisms have evolved in different lineages: the male X chromosome is hypertranscribed in drosophilid flies, both hermaphrodite X chromosomes are downregulated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and one X is inactivated in mammalian females. Moreover, comparative genomic studies demonstrate that the trans-acting factors (proteins and non-coding RNAs) that have been shown to mediate dosage compensation are unrelated among the three lineages. Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained. BioEssays 22:1106-1114, 2000. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

AB - Dosage compensation is the process by which the expression levels of sex-linked genes are altered in one sex to offset a difference in sex-chromosome number between females and males of a heterogametic species. Degeneration of a sex-limited chromosome to produce heterogamety is a common, perhaps unavoidable, feature of sex-chromosome evolution. Selective pressure to equalize sex-linked gene expression in the two sexes accompanies degeneration, thereby driving the evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. Studies of model species indicate that what appear to be very different mechanisms have evolved in different lineages: the male X chromosome is hypertranscribed in drosophilid flies, both hermaphrodite X chromosomes are downregulated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and one X is inactivated in mammalian females. Moreover, comparative genomic studies demonstrate that the trans-acting factors (proteins and non-coding RNAs) that have been shown to mediate dosage compensation are unrelated among the three lineages. Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained. BioEssays 22:1106-1114, 2000. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034547524&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034547524&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/1521-1878(200012)22:12<1106::AID-BIES8>3.0.CO;2-W

DO - 10.1002/1521-1878(200012)22:12<1106::AID-BIES8>3.0.CO;2-W

M3 - Article

C2 - 11084626

AN - SCOPUS:0034547524

VL - 22

SP - 1106

EP - 1114

JO - BioEssays

JF - BioEssays

SN - 0265-9247

IS - 12

ER -