The EChO science case

Giovanna Tinetti, Pierre Drossart, Paul Eccleston, Paul Hartogh, Kate Isaak, Martin Linder, Christophe Lovis, Giusi Micela, Marc Ollivier, Ludovic Puig, Ignasi Ribas, Ignas Snellen, Bruce Swinyard, France Allard, Joanna Barstow, James Cho, Athena Coustenis, Charles Cockell, Alexandre Correia, Leen Decin & 335 others Remco de Kok, Pieter Deroo, Therese Encrenaz, Francois Forget, Alistair Glasse, Caitlin Griffith, Tristan Guillot, Tommi Koskinen, Helmut Lammer, Jeremy Leconte, Pierre Maxted, Ingo Mueller-Wodarg, Richard Nelson, Chris North, Enric Pallé, Isabella Pagano, Guseppe Piccioni, David Pinfield, Franck Selsis, Alessandro Sozzetti, Lars Stixrude, Jonathan Tennyson, Diego Turrini, Mariarosa Zapatero-Osorio, Jean Philippe Beaulieu, Denis Grodent, Manuel Guedel, David Luz, Hans Ulrik Nørgaard-Nielsen, Tom Ray, Hans Rickman, Avri Selig, Mark Swain, Marek Banaszkiewicz, Mike Barlow, Neil Bowles, Graziella Branduardi-Raymont, Vincent Coudé du Foresto, Jean Claude Gerard, Laurent Gizon, Allan Hornstrup, Christopher Jarchow, Franz Kerschbaum, Géza Kovacs, Pierre Olivier Lagage, Tanya Lim, Mercedes Lopez-Morales, Giuseppe Malaguti, Emanuele Pace, Enzo Pascale, Bart Vandenbussche, Gillian Wright, Gonzalo Ramos Zapata, Alberto Adriani, Ruymán Azzollini, Ana Balado, Ian Bryson, Raymond Burston, Josep Colomé, Martin Crook, Anna Di Giorgio, Matt Griffin, Ruud Hoogeveen, Roland Ottensamer, Ranah Irshad, Kevin Middleton, Gianluca Morgante, Frederic Pinsard, Mirek Rataj, Jean Michel Reess, Giorgio Savini, Jan Rutger Schrader, Richard Stamper, Berend Winter, L. Abe, M. Abreu, N. Achilleos, P. Ade, V. Adybekian, L. Affer, C. Agnor, M. Agundez, C. Alard, J. Alcala, C. Allende Prieto, F. J. Alonso Floriano, F. Altieri, C. A. Alvarez Iglesias, P. Amado, A. Andersen, A. Aylward, C. Baffa, G. Bakos, P. Ballerini, M. Banaszkiewicz, R. J. Barber, D. Barrado, E. J. Barton, V. Batista, G. Bellucci, J. A. Belmonte Avilés, D. Berry, B. Bézard, D. Biondi, M. Błęcka, I. Boisse, B. Bonfond, P. Bordé, P. Börner, H. Bouy, L. Brown, L. Buchhave, J. Budaj, A. Bulgarelli, M. Burleigh, A. Cabral, M. T. Capria, A. Cassan, C. Cavarroc, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, R. Cerulli, J. Chadney, S. Chamberlain, S. Charnoz, N. Christian Jessen, A. Ciaravella, A. Claret, R. Claudi, A. Coates, R. Cole, A. Collura, D. Cordier, E. Covino, C. Danielski, M. Damasso, H. J. Deeg, E. Delgado-Mena, C. Del Vecchio, O. Demangeon, A. De Sio, J. De Wit, M. Dobrijévic, P. Doel, C. Dominic, E. Dorfi, S. Eales, C. Eiroa, M. Espinoza Contreras, M. Esposito, V. Eymet, N. Fabrizio, M. Fernández, B. Femenía Castella, P. Figueira, G. Filacchione, L. Fletcher, M. Focardi, S. Fossey, P. Fouqué, J. Frith, M. Galand, L. Gambicorti, P. Gaulme, R. J. García López, A. Garcia-Piquer, W. Gear, J. C. Gerard, L. Gesa, E. Giani, F. Gianotti, M. Gillon, E. Giro, M. Giuranna, H. Gomez, I. Gomez-Leal, J. Gonzalez Hernandez, B. González Merino, R. Graczyk, D. Grassi, J. Guardia, P. Guio, J. Gustin, P. Hargrave, J. Haigh, E. Hébrard, U. Heiter, R. L. Heredero, E. Herrero, F. Hersant, D. Heyrovsky, M. Hollis, B. Hubert, R. Hueso, G. Israelian, N. Iro, P. Irwin, S. Jacquemoud, G. Jones, H. Jones, K. Justtanont, T. Kehoe, F. Kerschbaum, E. Kerins, P. Kervella, D. Kipping, T. Koskinen, N. Krupp, O. Lahav, B. Laken, N. Lanza, E. Lellouch, G. Leto, J. Licandro Goldaracena, C. Lithgow-Bertelloni, S. J. Liu, U. Lo Cicero, N. Lodieu, P. Lognonné, M. Lopez-Puertas, M. A. Lopez-Valverde, I. Lundgaard Rasmussen, A. Luntzer, P. Machado, C. MacTavish, A. Maggio, J. P. Maillard, W. Magnes, J. Maldonado, U. Mall, J. B. Marquette, P. Mauskopf, F. Massi, A. S. Maurin, A. Medvedev, C. Michaut, P. Miles-Paez, M. Montalto, P. Montañés Rodríguez, M. Monteiro, D. Montes, H. Morais, J. C. Morales, M. Morales-Calderón, G. Morello, A. Moro Martín, J. Moses, A. Moya Bedon, F. Murgas Alcaino, E. Oliva, G. Orton, F. Palla, M. Pancrazzi, E. Pantin, V. Parmentier, H. Parviainen, K. Y. Peña Ramírez, J. Peralta, S. Perez-Hoyos, R. Petrov, S. Pezzuto, R. Pietrzak, E. Pilat-Lohinger, N. Piskunov, R. Prinja, L. Prisinzano, I. Polichtchouk, E. Poretti, A. Radioti, A. A. Ramos, T. Rank-Lüftinger, P. Read, K. Readorn, R. Rebolo López, J. Rebordão, M. Rengel, L. Rezac, M. Rocchetto, F. Rodler, V. J. Sánchez Béjar, A. Sanchez Lavega, E. Sanromá, N. Santos, J. Sanz Forcada, G. Scandariato, F. X. Schmider, A. Scholz, S. Scuderi, J. Sethenadh, S. Shore, A. Showman, B. Sicardy, P. Sitek, A. Smith, L. Soret, S. Sousa, A. Stiepen, M. Stolarski, G. Strazzulla, H. M. Tabernero, P. Tanga, M. Tecsa, J. Temple, L. Terenzi, M. Tessenyi, L. Testi, S. Thompson, H. Thrastarson, B. W. Tingley, M. Trifoglio, J. Martín Torres, A. Tozzi, D. Turrini, R. Varley, F. Vakili, M. de Val-Borro, M. L. Valdivieso, O. Venot, E. Villaver, S. Vinatier, S. Viti, I. Waldmann, D. Waltham, D. Ward-Thompson, R. Waters, C. Watkins, D. Watson, P. Wawer, A. Wawrzaszk, G. White, T. Widemann, W. Winek, T. Wiśniowski, R. Yelle, Y. Yung, S. N. Yurchenko

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10−4 relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 μm with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 μm. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R ~ 300 for wavelengths less than 5 μm and R ~ 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m2 is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m2 telescope, diffraction limited at 3 μm has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300–3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright “benchmark” cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of > 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO’s launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)329-391
    Number of pages63
    JournalExperimental Astronomy
    Volume40
    Issue number2-3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

    Fingerprint

    extrasolar planets
    observatories
    planet
    observatory
    planets
    spectroscopy
    solar system
    wavelength
    transit
    eclipses
    science
    atmospheric composition
    census
    planetary atmosphere
    wavelengths
    stars
    Neptune
    thermal structure
    formation mechanism
    spectral resolution

    Keywords

    • Atmospheric science
    • Exoplanets
    • IR astronomy
    • Space missions
    • Spectroscopy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics
    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Tinetti, G., Drossart, P., Eccleston, P., Hartogh, P., Isaak, K., Linder, M., ... Yurchenko, S. N. (2015). The EChO science case. Experimental Astronomy, 40(2-3), 329-391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-015-9484-8

    The EChO science case. / Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul; Hartogh, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Linder, Martin; Lovis, Christophe; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Puig, Ludovic; Ribas, Ignasi; Snellen, Ignas; Swinyard, Bruce; Allard, France; Barstow, Joanna; Cho, James; Coustenis, Athena; Cockell, Charles; Correia, Alexandre; Decin, Leen; de Kok, Remco; Deroo, Pieter; Encrenaz, Therese; Forget, Francois; Glasse, Alistair; Griffith, Caitlin; Guillot, Tristan; Koskinen, Tommi; Lammer, Helmut; Leconte, Jeremy; Maxted, Pierre; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Nelson, Richard; North, Chris; Pallé, Enric; Pagano, Isabella; Piccioni, Guseppe; Pinfield, David; Selsis, Franck; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stixrude, Lars; Tennyson, Jonathan; Turrini, Diego; Zapatero-Osorio, Mariarosa; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Grodent, Denis; Guedel, Manuel; Luz, David; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ray, Tom; Rickman, Hans; Selig, Avri; Swain, Mark; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Barlow, Mike; Bowles, Neil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; du Foresto, Vincent Coudé; Gerard, Jean Claude; Gizon, Laurent; Hornstrup, Allan; Jarchow, Christopher; Kerschbaum, Franz; Kovacs, Géza; Lagage, Pierre Olivier; Lim, Tanya; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Pace, Emanuele; Pascale, Enzo; Vandenbussche, Bart; Wright, Gillian; Zapata, Gonzalo Ramos; Adriani, Alberto; Azzollini, Ruymán; Balado, Ana; Bryson, Ian; Burston, Raymond; Colomé, Josep; Crook, Martin; Di Giorgio, Anna; Griffin, Matt; Hoogeveen, Ruud; Ottensamer, Roland; Irshad, Ranah; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pinsard, Frederic; Rataj, Mirek; Reess, Jean Michel; Savini, Giorgio; Schrader, Jan Rutger; Stamper, Richard; Winter, Berend; Abe, L.; Abreu, M.; Achilleos, N.; Ade, P.; Adybekian, V.; Affer, L.; Agnor, C.; Agundez, M.; Alard, C.; Alcala, J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Altieri, F.; Alvarez Iglesias, C. A.; Amado, P.; Andersen, A.; Aylward, A.; Baffa, C.; Bakos, G.; Ballerini, P.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Barber, R. J.; Barrado, D.; Barton, E. J.; Batista, V.; Bellucci, G.; Belmonte Avilés, J. A.; Berry, D.; Bézard, B.; Biondi, D.; Błęcka, M.; Boisse, I.; Bonfond, B.; Bordé, P.; Börner, P.; Bouy, H.; Brown, L.; Buchhave, L.; Budaj, J.; Bulgarelli, A.; Burleigh, M.; Cabral, A.; Capria, M. T.; Cassan, A.; Cavarroc, C.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Cerulli, R.; Chadney, J.; Chamberlain, S.; Charnoz, S.; Christian Jessen, N.; Ciaravella, A.; Claret, A.; Claudi, R.; Coates, A.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Cordier, D.; Covino, E.; Danielski, C.; Damasso, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Del Vecchio, C.; Demangeon, O.; De Sio, A.; De Wit, J.; Dobrijévic, M.; Doel, P.; Dominic, C.; Dorfi, E.; Eales, S.; Eiroa, C.; Espinoza Contreras, M.; Esposito, M.; Eymet, V.; Fabrizio, N.; Fernández, M.; Femenía Castella, B.; Figueira, P.; Filacchione, G.; Fletcher, L.; Focardi, M.; Fossey, S.; Fouqué, P.; Frith, J.; Galand, M.; Gambicorti, L.; Gaulme, P.; García López, R. J.; Garcia-Piquer, A.; Gear, W.; Gerard, J. C.; Gesa, L.; Giani, E.; Gianotti, F.; Gillon, M.; Giro, E.; Giuranna, M.; Gomez, H.; Gomez-Leal, I.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J.; González Merino, B.; Graczyk, R.; Grassi, D.; Guardia, J.; Guio, P.; Gustin, J.; Hargrave, P.; Haigh, J.; Hébrard, E.; Heiter, U.; Heredero, R. L.; Herrero, E.; Hersant, F.; Heyrovsky, D.; Hollis, M.; Hubert, B.; Hueso, R.; Israelian, G.; Iro, N.; Irwin, P.; Jacquemoud, S.; Jones, G.; Jones, H.; Justtanont, K.; Kehoe, T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Kerins, E.; Kervella, P.; Kipping, D.; Koskinen, T.; Krupp, N.; Lahav, O.; Laken, B.; Lanza, N.; Lellouch, E.; Leto, G.; Licandro Goldaracena, J.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Liu, S. J.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lodieu, N.; Lognonné, P.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lundgaard Rasmussen, I.; Luntzer, A.; Machado, P.; MacTavish, C.; Maggio, A.; Maillard, J. P.; Magnes, W.; Maldonado, J.; Mall, U.; Marquette, J. B.; Mauskopf, P.; Massi, F.; Maurin, A. S.; Medvedev, A.; Michaut, C.; Miles-Paez, P.; Montalto, M.; Montañés Rodríguez, P.; Monteiro, M.; Montes, D.; Morais, H.; Morales, J. C.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Morello, G.; Moro Martín, A.; Moses, J.; Moya Bedon, A.; Murgas Alcaino, F.; Oliva, E.; Orton, G.; Palla, F.; Pancrazzi, M.; Pantin, E.; Parmentier, V.; Parviainen, H.; Peña Ramírez, K. Y.; Peralta, J.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Petrov, R.; Pezzuto, S.; Pietrzak, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Piskunov, N.; Prinja, R.; Prisinzano, L.; Polichtchouk, I.; Poretti, E.; Radioti, A.; Ramos, A. A.; Rank-Lüftinger, T.; Read, P.; Readorn, K.; Rebolo López, R.; Rebordão, J.; Rengel, M.; Rezac, L.; Rocchetto, M.; Rodler, F.; Sánchez Béjar, V. J.; Sanchez Lavega, A.; Sanromá, E.; Santos, N.; Sanz Forcada, J.; Scandariato, G.; Schmider, F. X.; Scholz, A.; Scuderi, S.; Sethenadh, J.; Shore, S.; Showman, A.; Sicardy, B.; Sitek, P.; Smith, A.; Soret, L.; Sousa, S.; Stiepen, A.; Stolarski, M.; Strazzulla, G.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tanga, P.; Tecsa, M.; Temple, J.; Terenzi, L.; Tessenyi, M.; Testi, L.; Thompson, S.; Thrastarson, H.; Tingley, B. W.; Trifoglio, M.; Martín Torres, J.; Tozzi, A.; Turrini, D.; Varley, R.; Vakili, F.; de Val-Borro, M.; Valdivieso, M. L.; Venot, O.; Villaver, E.; Vinatier, S.; Viti, S.; Waldmann, I.; Waltham, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Waters, R.; Watkins, C.; Watson, D.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszk, A.; White, G.; Widemann, T.; Winek, W.; Wiśniowski, T.; Yelle, R.; Yung, Y.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    In: Experimental Astronomy, Vol. 40, No. 2-3, 01.12.2015, p. 329-391.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Tinetti, G, Drossart, P, Eccleston, P, Hartogh, P, Isaak, K, Linder, M, Lovis, C, Micela, G, Ollivier, M, Puig, L, Ribas, I, Snellen, I, Swinyard, B, Allard, F, Barstow, J, Cho, J, Coustenis, A, Cockell, C, Correia, A, Decin, L, de Kok, R, Deroo, P, Encrenaz, T, Forget, F, Glasse, A, Griffith, C, Guillot, T, Koskinen, T, Lammer, H, Leconte, J, Maxted, P, Mueller-Wodarg, I, Nelson, R, North, C, Pallé, E, Pagano, I, Piccioni, G, Pinfield, D, Selsis, F, Sozzetti, A, Stixrude, L, Tennyson, J, Turrini, D, Zapatero-Osorio, M, Beaulieu, JP, Grodent, D, Guedel, M, Luz, D, Nørgaard-Nielsen, HU, Ray, T, Rickman, H, Selig, A, Swain, M, Banaszkiewicz, M, Barlow, M, Bowles, N, Branduardi-Raymont, G, du Foresto, VC, Gerard, JC, Gizon, L, Hornstrup, A, Jarchow, C, Kerschbaum, F, Kovacs, G, Lagage, PO, Lim, T, Lopez-Morales, M, Malaguti, G, Pace, E, Pascale, E, Vandenbussche, B, Wright, G, Zapata, GR, Adriani, A, Azzollini, R, Balado, A, Bryson, I, Burston, R, Colomé, J, Crook, M, Di Giorgio, A, Griffin, M, Hoogeveen, R, Ottensamer, R, Irshad, R, Middleton, K, Morgante, G, Pinsard, F, Rataj, M, Reess, JM, Savini, G, Schrader, JR, Stamper, R, Winter, B, Abe, L, Abreu, M, Achilleos, N, Ade, P, Adybekian, V, Affer, L, Agnor, C, Agundez, M, Alard, C, Alcala, J, Allende Prieto, C, Alonso Floriano, FJ, Altieri, F, Alvarez Iglesias, CA, Amado, P, Andersen, A, Aylward, A, Baffa, C, Bakos, G, Ballerini, P, Banaszkiewicz, M, Barber, RJ, Barrado, D, Barton, EJ, Batista, V, Bellucci, G, Belmonte Avilés, JA, Berry, D, Bézard, B, Biondi, D, Błęcka, M, Boisse, I, Bonfond, B, Bordé, P, Börner, P, Bouy, H, Brown, L, Buchhave, L, Budaj, J, Bulgarelli, A, Burleigh, M, Cabral, A, Capria, MT, Cassan, A, Cavarroc, C, Cecchi-Pestellini, C, Cerulli, R, Chadney, J, Chamberlain, S, Charnoz, S, Christian Jessen, N, Ciaravella, A, Claret, A, Claudi, R, Coates, A, Cole, R, Collura, A, Cordier, D, Covino, E, Danielski, C, Damasso, M, Deeg, HJ, Delgado-Mena, E, Del Vecchio, C, Demangeon, O, De Sio, A, De Wit, J, Dobrijévic, M, Doel, P, Dominic, C, Dorfi, E, Eales, S, Eiroa, C, Espinoza Contreras, M, Esposito, M, Eymet, V, Fabrizio, N, Fernández, M, Femenía Castella, B, Figueira, P, Filacchione, G, Fletcher, L, Focardi, M, Fossey, S, Fouqué, P, Frith, J, Galand, M, Gambicorti, L, Gaulme, P, García López, RJ, Garcia-Piquer, A, Gear, W, Gerard, JC, Gesa, L, Giani, E, Gianotti, F, Gillon, M, Giro, E, Giuranna, M, Gomez, H, Gomez-Leal, I, Gonzalez Hernandez, J, González Merino, B, Graczyk, R, Grassi, D, Guardia, J, Guio, P, Gustin, J, Hargrave, P, Haigh, J, Hébrard, E, Heiter, U, Heredero, RL, Herrero, E, Hersant, F, Heyrovsky, D, Hollis, M, Hubert, B, Hueso, R, Israelian, G, Iro, N, Irwin, P, Jacquemoud, S, Jones, G, Jones, H, Justtanont, K, Kehoe, T, Kerschbaum, F, Kerins, E, Kervella, P, Kipping, D, Koskinen, T, Krupp, N, Lahav, O, Laken, B, Lanza, N, Lellouch, E, Leto, G, Licandro Goldaracena, J, Lithgow-Bertelloni, C, Liu, SJ, Lo Cicero, U, Lodieu, N, Lognonné, P, Lopez-Puertas, M, Lopez-Valverde, MA, Lundgaard Rasmussen, I, Luntzer, A, Machado, P, MacTavish, C, Maggio, A, Maillard, JP, Magnes, W, Maldonado, J, Mall, U, Marquette, JB, Mauskopf, P, Massi, F, Maurin, AS, Medvedev, A, Michaut, C, Miles-Paez, P, Montalto, M, Montañés Rodríguez, P, Monteiro, M, Montes, D, Morais, H, Morales, JC, Morales-Calderón, M, Morello, G, Moro Martín, A, Moses, J, Moya Bedon, A, Murgas Alcaino, F, Oliva, E, Orton, G, Palla, F, Pancrazzi, M, Pantin, E, Parmentier, V, Parviainen, H, Peña Ramírez, KY, Peralta, J, Perez-Hoyos, S, Petrov, R, Pezzuto, S, Pietrzak, R, Pilat-Lohinger, E, Piskunov, N, Prinja, R, Prisinzano, L, Polichtchouk, I, Poretti, E, Radioti, A, Ramos, AA, Rank-Lüftinger, T, Read, P, Readorn, K, Rebolo López, R, Rebordão, J, Rengel, M, Rezac, L, Rocchetto, M, Rodler, F, Sánchez Béjar, VJ, Sanchez Lavega, A, Sanromá, E, Santos, N, Sanz Forcada, J, Scandariato, G, Schmider, FX, Scholz, A, Scuderi, S, Sethenadh, J, Shore, S, Showman, A, Sicardy, B, Sitek, P, Smith, A, Soret, L, Sousa, S, Stiepen, A, Stolarski, M, Strazzulla, G, Tabernero, HM, Tanga, P, Tecsa, M, Temple, J, Terenzi, L, Tessenyi, M, Testi, L, Thompson, S, Thrastarson, H, Tingley, BW, Trifoglio, M, Martín Torres, J, Tozzi, A, Turrini, D, Varley, R, Vakili, F, de Val-Borro, M, Valdivieso, ML, Venot, O, Villaver, E, Vinatier, S, Viti, S, Waldmann, I, Waltham, D, Ward-Thompson, D, Waters, R, Watkins, C, Watson, D, Wawer, P, Wawrzaszk, A, White, G, Widemann, T, Winek, W, Wiśniowski, T, Yelle, R, Yung, Y & Yurchenko, SN 2015, 'The EChO science case', Experimental Astronomy, vol. 40, no. 2-3, pp. 329-391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-015-9484-8
    Tinetti G, Drossart P, Eccleston P, Hartogh P, Isaak K, Linder M et al. The EChO science case. Experimental Astronomy. 2015 Dec 1;40(2-3):329-391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-015-9484-8
    Tinetti, Giovanna ; Drossart, Pierre ; Eccleston, Paul ; Hartogh, Paul ; Isaak, Kate ; Linder, Martin ; Lovis, Christophe ; Micela, Giusi ; Ollivier, Marc ; Puig, Ludovic ; Ribas, Ignasi ; Snellen, Ignas ; Swinyard, Bruce ; Allard, France ; Barstow, Joanna ; Cho, James ; Coustenis, Athena ; Cockell, Charles ; Correia, Alexandre ; Decin, Leen ; de Kok, Remco ; Deroo, Pieter ; Encrenaz, Therese ; Forget, Francois ; Glasse, Alistair ; Griffith, Caitlin ; Guillot, Tristan ; Koskinen, Tommi ; Lammer, Helmut ; Leconte, Jeremy ; Maxted, Pierre ; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo ; Nelson, Richard ; North, Chris ; Pallé, Enric ; Pagano, Isabella ; Piccioni, Guseppe ; Pinfield, David ; Selsis, Franck ; Sozzetti, Alessandro ; Stixrude, Lars ; Tennyson, Jonathan ; Turrini, Diego ; Zapatero-Osorio, Mariarosa ; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe ; Grodent, Denis ; Guedel, Manuel ; Luz, David ; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik ; Ray, Tom ; Rickman, Hans ; Selig, Avri ; Swain, Mark ; Banaszkiewicz, Marek ; Barlow, Mike ; Bowles, Neil ; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella ; du Foresto, Vincent Coudé ; Gerard, Jean Claude ; Gizon, Laurent ; Hornstrup, Allan ; Jarchow, Christopher ; Kerschbaum, Franz ; Kovacs, Géza ; Lagage, Pierre Olivier ; Lim, Tanya ; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes ; Malaguti, Giuseppe ; Pace, Emanuele ; Pascale, Enzo ; Vandenbussche, Bart ; Wright, Gillian ; Zapata, Gonzalo Ramos ; Adriani, Alberto ; Azzollini, Ruymán ; Balado, Ana ; Bryson, Ian ; Burston, Raymond ; Colomé, Josep ; Crook, Martin ; Di Giorgio, Anna ; Griffin, Matt ; Hoogeveen, Ruud ; Ottensamer, Roland ; Irshad, Ranah ; Middleton, Kevin ; Morgante, Gianluca ; Pinsard, Frederic ; Rataj, Mirek ; Reess, Jean Michel ; Savini, Giorgio ; Schrader, Jan Rutger ; Stamper, Richard ; Winter, Berend ; Abe, L. ; Abreu, M. ; Achilleos, N. ; Ade, P. ; Adybekian, V. ; Affer, L. ; Agnor, C. ; Agundez, M. ; Alard, C. ; Alcala, J. ; Allende Prieto, C. ; Alonso Floriano, F. J. ; Altieri, F. ; Alvarez Iglesias, C. A. ; Amado, P. ; Andersen, A. ; Aylward, A. ; Baffa, C. ; Bakos, G. ; Ballerini, P. ; Banaszkiewicz, M. ; Barber, R. J. ; Barrado, D. ; Barton, E. J. ; Batista, V. ; Bellucci, G. ; Belmonte Avilés, J. A. ; Berry, D. ; Bézard, B. ; Biondi, D. ; Błęcka, M. ; Boisse, I. ; Bonfond, B. ; Bordé, P. ; Börner, P. ; Bouy, H. ; Brown, L. ; Buchhave, L. ; Budaj, J. ; Bulgarelli, A. ; Burleigh, M. ; Cabral, A. ; Capria, M. T. ; Cassan, A. ; Cavarroc, C. ; Cecchi-Pestellini, C. ; Cerulli, R. ; Chadney, J. ; Chamberlain, S. ; Charnoz, S. ; Christian Jessen, N. ; Ciaravella, A. ; Claret, A. ; Claudi, R. ; Coates, A. ; Cole, R. ; Collura, A. ; Cordier, D. ; Covino, E. ; Danielski, C. ; Damasso, M. ; Deeg, H. J. ; Delgado-Mena, E. ; Del Vecchio, C. ; Demangeon, O. ; De Sio, A. ; De Wit, J. ; Dobrijévic, M. ; Doel, P. ; Dominic, C. ; Dorfi, E. ; Eales, S. ; Eiroa, C. ; Espinoza Contreras, M. ; Esposito, M. ; Eymet, V. ; Fabrizio, N. ; Fernández, M. ; Femenía Castella, B. ; Figueira, P. ; Filacchione, G. ; Fletcher, L. ; Focardi, M. ; Fossey, S. ; Fouqué, P. ; Frith, J. ; Galand, M. ; Gambicorti, L. ; Gaulme, P. ; García López, R. J. ; Garcia-Piquer, A. ; Gear, W. ; Gerard, J. C. ; Gesa, L. ; Giani, E. ; Gianotti, F. ; Gillon, M. ; Giro, E. ; Giuranna, M. ; Gomez, H. ; Gomez-Leal, I. ; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. ; González Merino, B. ; Graczyk, R. ; Grassi, D. ; Guardia, J. ; Guio, P. ; Gustin, J. ; Hargrave, P. ; Haigh, J. ; Hébrard, E. ; Heiter, U. ; Heredero, R. L. ; Herrero, E. ; Hersant, F. ; Heyrovsky, D. ; Hollis, M. ; Hubert, B. ; Hueso, R. ; Israelian, G. ; Iro, N. ; Irwin, P. ; Jacquemoud, S. ; Jones, G. ; Jones, H. ; Justtanont, K. ; Kehoe, T. ; Kerschbaum, F. ; Kerins, E. ; Kervella, P. ; Kipping, D. ; Koskinen, T. ; Krupp, N. ; Lahav, O. ; Laken, B. ; Lanza, N. ; Lellouch, E. ; Leto, G. ; Licandro Goldaracena, J. ; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. ; Liu, S. J. ; Lo Cicero, U. ; Lodieu, N. ; Lognonné, P. ; Lopez-Puertas, M. ; Lopez-Valverde, M. A. ; Lundgaard Rasmussen, I. ; Luntzer, A. ; Machado, P. ; MacTavish, C. ; Maggio, A. ; Maillard, J. P. ; Magnes, W. ; Maldonado, J. ; Mall, U. ; Marquette, J. B. ; Mauskopf, P. ; Massi, F. ; Maurin, A. S. ; Medvedev, A. ; Michaut, C. ; Miles-Paez, P. ; Montalto, M. ; Montañés Rodríguez, P. ; Monteiro, M. ; Montes, D. ; Morais, H. ; Morales, J. C. ; Morales-Calderón, M. ; Morello, G. ; Moro Martín, A. ; Moses, J. ; Moya Bedon, A. ; Murgas Alcaino, F. ; Oliva, E. ; Orton, G. ; Palla, F. ; Pancrazzi, M. ; Pantin, E. ; Parmentier, V. ; Parviainen, H. ; Peña Ramírez, K. Y. ; Peralta, J. ; Perez-Hoyos, S. ; Petrov, R. ; Pezzuto, S. ; Pietrzak, R. ; Pilat-Lohinger, E. ; Piskunov, N. ; Prinja, R. ; Prisinzano, L. ; Polichtchouk, I. ; Poretti, E. ; Radioti, A. ; Ramos, A. A. ; Rank-Lüftinger, T. ; Read, P. ; Readorn, K. ; Rebolo López, R. ; Rebordão, J. ; Rengel, M. ; Rezac, L. ; Rocchetto, M. ; Rodler, F. ; Sánchez Béjar, V. J. ; Sanchez Lavega, A. ; Sanromá, E. ; Santos, N. ; Sanz Forcada, J. ; Scandariato, G. ; Schmider, F. X. ; Scholz, A. ; Scuderi, S. ; Sethenadh, J. ; Shore, S. ; Showman, A. ; Sicardy, B. ; Sitek, P. ; Smith, A. ; Soret, L. ; Sousa, S. ; Stiepen, A. ; Stolarski, M. ; Strazzulla, G. ; Tabernero, H. M. ; Tanga, P. ; Tecsa, M. ; Temple, J. ; Terenzi, L. ; Tessenyi, M. ; Testi, L. ; Thompson, S. ; Thrastarson, H. ; Tingley, B. W. ; Trifoglio, M. ; Martín Torres, J. ; Tozzi, A. ; Turrini, D. ; Varley, R. ; Vakili, F. ; de Val-Borro, M. ; Valdivieso, M. L. ; Venot, O. ; Villaver, E. ; Vinatier, S. ; Viti, S. ; Waldmann, I. ; Waltham, D. ; Ward-Thompson, D. ; Waters, R. ; Watkins, C. ; Watson, D. ; Wawer, P. ; Wawrzaszk, A. ; White, G. ; Widemann, T. ; Winek, W. ; Wiśniowski, T. ; Yelle, R. ; Yung, Y. ; Yurchenko, S. N. / The EChO science case. In: Experimental Astronomy. 2015 ; Vol. 40, No. 2-3. pp. 329-391.
    @article{9bee6f9dd1d14a218f45a2c798f0148d,
    title = "The EChO science case",
    abstract = "The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10−4 relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 μm with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 μm. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R ~ 300 for wavelengths less than 5 μm and R ~ 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m2 is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m2 telescope, diffraction limited at 3 μm has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300–3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright “benchmark” cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of > 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO’s launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.",
    keywords = "Atmospheric science, Exoplanets, IR astronomy, Space missions, Spectroscopy",
    author = "Giovanna Tinetti and Pierre Drossart and Paul Eccleston and Paul Hartogh and Kate Isaak and Martin Linder and Christophe Lovis and Giusi Micela and Marc Ollivier and Ludovic Puig and Ignasi Ribas and Ignas Snellen and Bruce Swinyard and France Allard and Joanna Barstow and James Cho and Athena Coustenis and Charles Cockell and Alexandre Correia and Leen Decin and {de Kok}, Remco and Pieter Deroo and Therese Encrenaz and Francois Forget and Alistair Glasse and Caitlin Griffith and Tristan Guillot and Tommi Koskinen and Helmut Lammer and Jeremy Leconte and Pierre Maxted and Ingo Mueller-Wodarg and Richard Nelson and Chris North and Enric Pall{\'e} and Isabella Pagano and Guseppe Piccioni and David Pinfield and Franck Selsis and Alessandro Sozzetti and Lars Stixrude and Jonathan Tennyson and Diego Turrini and Mariarosa Zapatero-Osorio and Beaulieu, {Jean Philippe} and Denis Grodent and Manuel Guedel and David Luz and N{\o}rgaard-Nielsen, {Hans Ulrik} and Tom Ray and Hans Rickman and Avri Selig and Mark Swain and Marek Banaszkiewicz and Mike Barlow and Neil Bowles and Graziella Branduardi-Raymont and {du Foresto}, {Vincent Coud{\'e}} and Gerard, {Jean Claude} and Laurent Gizon and Allan Hornstrup and Christopher Jarchow and Franz Kerschbaum and G{\'e}za Kovacs and Lagage, {Pierre Olivier} and Tanya Lim and Mercedes Lopez-Morales and Giuseppe Malaguti and Emanuele Pace and Enzo Pascale and Bart Vandenbussche and Gillian Wright and Zapata, {Gonzalo Ramos} and Alberto Adriani and Ruym{\'a}n Azzollini and Ana Balado and Ian Bryson and Raymond Burston and Josep Colom{\'e} and Martin Crook and {Di Giorgio}, Anna and Matt Griffin and Ruud Hoogeveen and Roland Ottensamer and Ranah Irshad and Kevin Middleton and Gianluca Morgante and Frederic Pinsard and Mirek Rataj and Reess, {Jean Michel} and Giorgio Savini and Schrader, {Jan Rutger} and Richard Stamper and Berend Winter and L. Abe and M. Abreu and N. Achilleos and P. Ade and V. Adybekian and L. Affer and C. Agnor and M. Agundez and C. Alard and J. Alcala and {Allende Prieto}, C. and {Alonso Floriano}, {F. J.} and F. Altieri and {Alvarez Iglesias}, {C. A.} and P. Amado and A. Andersen and A. Aylward and C. Baffa and G. Bakos and P. Ballerini and M. Banaszkiewicz and Barber, {R. J.} and D. Barrado and Barton, {E. J.} and V. Batista and G. Bellucci and {Belmonte Avil{\'e}s}, {J. A.} and D. Berry and B. B{\'e}zard and D. Biondi and M. Błęcka and I. Boisse and B. Bonfond and P. Bord{\'e} and P. B{\"o}rner and H. Bouy and L. Brown and L. Buchhave and J. Budaj and A. Bulgarelli and M. Burleigh and A. Cabral and Capria, {M. T.} and A. Cassan and C. Cavarroc and C. Cecchi-Pestellini and R. Cerulli and J. Chadney and S. Chamberlain and S. Charnoz and {Christian Jessen}, N. and A. Ciaravella and A. Claret and R. Claudi and A. Coates and R. Cole and A. Collura and D. Cordier and E. Covino and C. Danielski and M. Damasso and Deeg, {H. J.} and E. Delgado-Mena and {Del Vecchio}, C. and O. Demangeon and {De Sio}, A. and {De Wit}, J. and M. Dobrij{\'e}vic and P. Doel and C. Dominic and E. Dorfi and S. Eales and C. Eiroa and {Espinoza Contreras}, M. and M. Esposito and V. Eymet and N. Fabrizio and M. Fern{\'a}ndez and {Femen{\'i}a Castella}, B. and P. Figueira and G. Filacchione and L. Fletcher and M. Focardi and S. Fossey and P. Fouqu{\'e} and J. Frith and M. Galand and L. Gambicorti and P. Gaulme and {Garc{\'i}a L{\'o}pez}, {R. J.} and A. Garcia-Piquer and W. Gear and Gerard, {J. C.} and L. Gesa and E. Giani and F. Gianotti and M. Gillon and E. Giro and M. Giuranna and H. Gomez and I. Gomez-Leal and {Gonzalez Hernandez}, J. and {Gonz{\'a}lez Merino}, B. and R. Graczyk and D. Grassi and J. Guardia and P. Guio and J. Gustin and P. Hargrave and J. Haigh and E. H{\'e}brard and U. Heiter and Heredero, {R. L.} and E. Herrero and F. Hersant and D. Heyrovsky and M. Hollis and B. Hubert and R. Hueso and G. Israelian and N. Iro and P. Irwin and S. Jacquemoud and G. Jones and H. Jones and K. Justtanont and T. Kehoe and F. Kerschbaum and E. Kerins and P. Kervella and D. Kipping and T. Koskinen and N. Krupp and O. Lahav and B. Laken and N. Lanza and E. Lellouch and G. Leto and {Licandro Goldaracena}, J. and C. Lithgow-Bertelloni and Liu, {S. J.} and {Lo Cicero}, U. and N. Lodieu and P. Lognonn{\'e} and M. Lopez-Puertas and Lopez-Valverde, {M. A.} and {Lundgaard Rasmussen}, I. and A. Luntzer and P. Machado and C. MacTavish and A. Maggio and Maillard, {J. P.} and W. Magnes and J. Maldonado and U. Mall and Marquette, {J. B.} and P. Mauskopf and F. Massi and Maurin, {A. S.} and A. Medvedev and C. Michaut and P. Miles-Paez and M. Montalto and {Monta{\~n}{\'e}s Rodr{\'i}guez}, P. and M. Monteiro and D. Montes and H. Morais and Morales, {J. C.} and M. Morales-Calder{\'o}n and G. Morello and {Moro Mart{\'i}n}, A. and J. Moses and {Moya Bedon}, A. and {Murgas Alcaino}, F. and E. Oliva and G. Orton and F. Palla and M. Pancrazzi and E. Pantin and V. Parmentier and H. Parviainen and {Pe{\~n}a Ram{\'i}rez}, {K. Y.} and J. Peralta and S. Perez-Hoyos and R. Petrov and S. Pezzuto and R. Pietrzak and E. Pilat-Lohinger and N. Piskunov and R. Prinja and L. Prisinzano and I. Polichtchouk and E. Poretti and A. Radioti and Ramos, {A. A.} and T. Rank-L{\"u}ftinger and P. Read and K. Readorn and {Rebolo L{\'o}pez}, R. and J. Rebord{\~a}o and M. Rengel and L. Rezac and M. Rocchetto and F. Rodler and {S{\'a}nchez B{\'e}jar}, {V. J.} and {Sanchez Lavega}, A. and E. Sanrom{\'a} and N. Santos and {Sanz Forcada}, J. and G. Scandariato and Schmider, {F. X.} and A. Scholz and S. Scuderi and J. Sethenadh and S. Shore and A. Showman and B. Sicardy and P. Sitek and A. Smith and L. Soret and S. Sousa and A. Stiepen and M. Stolarski and G. Strazzulla and Tabernero, {H. M.} and P. Tanga and M. Tecsa and J. Temple and L. Terenzi and M. Tessenyi and L. Testi and S. Thompson and H. Thrastarson and Tingley, {B. W.} and M. Trifoglio and {Mart{\'i}n Torres}, J. and A. Tozzi and D. Turrini and R. Varley and F. Vakili and {de Val-Borro}, M. and Valdivieso, {M. L.} and O. Venot and E. Villaver and S. Vinatier and S. Viti and I. Waldmann and D. Waltham and D. Ward-Thompson and R. Waters and C. Watkins and D. Watson and P. Wawer and A. Wawrzaszk and G. White and T. Widemann and W. Winek and T. Wiśniowski and R. Yelle and Y. Yung and Yurchenko, {S. N.}",
    year = "2015",
    month = "12",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1007/s10686-015-9484-8",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "40",
    pages = "329--391",
    journal = "Experimental Astronomy",
    issn = "0922-6435",
    publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
    number = "2-3",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The EChO science case

    AU - Tinetti, Giovanna

    AU - Drossart, Pierre

    AU - Eccleston, Paul

    AU - Hartogh, Paul

    AU - Isaak, Kate

    AU - Linder, Martin

    AU - Lovis, Christophe

    AU - Micela, Giusi

    AU - Ollivier, Marc

    AU - Puig, Ludovic

    AU - Ribas, Ignasi

    AU - Snellen, Ignas

    AU - Swinyard, Bruce

    AU - Allard, France

    AU - Barstow, Joanna

    AU - Cho, James

    AU - Coustenis, Athena

    AU - Cockell, Charles

    AU - Correia, Alexandre

    AU - Decin, Leen

    AU - de Kok, Remco

    AU - Deroo, Pieter

    AU - Encrenaz, Therese

    AU - Forget, Francois

    AU - Glasse, Alistair

    AU - Griffith, Caitlin

    AU - Guillot, Tristan

    AU - Koskinen, Tommi

    AU - Lammer, Helmut

    AU - Leconte, Jeremy

    AU - Maxted, Pierre

    AU - Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    AU - Nelson, Richard

    AU - North, Chris

    AU - Pallé, Enric

    AU - Pagano, Isabella

    AU - Piccioni, Guseppe

    AU - Pinfield, David

    AU - Selsis, Franck

    AU - Sozzetti, Alessandro

    AU - Stixrude, Lars

    AU - Tennyson, Jonathan

    AU - Turrini, Diego

    AU - Zapatero-Osorio, Mariarosa

    AU - Beaulieu, Jean Philippe

    AU - Grodent, Denis

    AU - Guedel, Manuel

    AU - Luz, David

    AU - Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    AU - Ray, Tom

    AU - Rickman, Hans

    AU - Selig, Avri

    AU - Swain, Mark

    AU - Banaszkiewicz, Marek

    AU - Barlow, Mike

    AU - Bowles, Neil

    AU - Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    AU - du Foresto, Vincent Coudé

    AU - Gerard, Jean Claude

    AU - Gizon, Laurent

    AU - Hornstrup, Allan

    AU - Jarchow, Christopher

    AU - Kerschbaum, Franz

    AU - Kovacs, Géza

    AU - Lagage, Pierre Olivier

    AU - Lim, Tanya

    AU - Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    AU - Malaguti, Giuseppe

    AU - Pace, Emanuele

    AU - Pascale, Enzo

    AU - Vandenbussche, Bart

    AU - Wright, Gillian

    AU - Zapata, Gonzalo Ramos

    AU - Adriani, Alberto

    AU - Azzollini, Ruymán

    AU - Balado, Ana

    AU - Bryson, Ian

    AU - Burston, Raymond

    AU - Colomé, Josep

    AU - Crook, Martin

    AU - Di Giorgio, Anna

    AU - Griffin, Matt

    AU - Hoogeveen, Ruud

    AU - Ottensamer, Roland

    AU - Irshad, Ranah

    AU - Middleton, Kevin

    AU - Morgante, Gianluca

    AU - Pinsard, Frederic

    AU - Rataj, Mirek

    AU - Reess, Jean Michel

    AU - Savini, Giorgio

    AU - Schrader, Jan Rutger

    AU - Stamper, Richard

    AU - Winter, Berend

    AU - Abe, L.

    AU - Abreu, M.

    AU - Achilleos, N.

    AU - Ade, P.

    AU - Adybekian, V.

    AU - Affer, L.

    AU - Agnor, C.

    AU - Agundez, M.

    AU - Alard, C.

    AU - Alcala, J.

    AU - Allende Prieto, C.

    AU - Alonso Floriano, F. J.

    AU - Altieri, F.

    AU - Alvarez Iglesias, C. A.

    AU - Amado, P.

    AU - Andersen, A.

    AU - Aylward, A.

    AU - Baffa, C.

    AU - Bakos, G.

    AU - Ballerini, P.

    AU - Banaszkiewicz, M.

    AU - Barber, R. J.

    AU - Barrado, D.

    AU - Barton, E. J.

    AU - Batista, V.

    AU - Bellucci, G.

    AU - Belmonte Avilés, J. A.

    AU - Berry, D.

    AU - Bézard, B.

    AU - Biondi, D.

    AU - Błęcka, M.

    AU - Boisse, I.

    AU - Bonfond, B.

    AU - Bordé, P.

    AU - Börner, P.

    AU - Bouy, H.

    AU - Brown, L.

    AU - Buchhave, L.

    AU - Budaj, J.

    AU - Bulgarelli, A.

    AU - Burleigh, M.

    AU - Cabral, A.

    AU - Capria, M. T.

    AU - Cassan, A.

    AU - Cavarroc, C.

    AU - Cecchi-Pestellini, C.

    AU - Cerulli, R.

    AU - Chadney, J.

    AU - Chamberlain, S.

    AU - Charnoz, S.

    AU - Christian Jessen, N.

    AU - Ciaravella, A.

    AU - Claret, A.

    AU - Claudi, R.

    AU - Coates, A.

    AU - Cole, R.

    AU - Collura, A.

    AU - Cordier, D.

    AU - Covino, E.

    AU - Danielski, C.

    AU - Damasso, M.

    AU - Deeg, H. J.

    AU - Delgado-Mena, E.

    AU - Del Vecchio, C.

    AU - Demangeon, O.

    AU - De Sio, A.

    AU - De Wit, J.

    AU - Dobrijévic, M.

    AU - Doel, P.

    AU - Dominic, C.

    AU - Dorfi, E.

    AU - Eales, S.

    AU - Eiroa, C.

    AU - Espinoza Contreras, M.

    AU - Esposito, M.

    AU - Eymet, V.

    AU - Fabrizio, N.

    AU - Fernández, M.

    AU - Femenía Castella, B.

    AU - Figueira, P.

    AU - Filacchione, G.

    AU - Fletcher, L.

    AU - Focardi, M.

    AU - Fossey, S.

    AU - Fouqué, P.

    AU - Frith, J.

    AU - Galand, M.

    AU - Gambicorti, L.

    AU - Gaulme, P.

    AU - García López, R. J.

    AU - Garcia-Piquer, A.

    AU - Gear, W.

    AU - Gerard, J. C.

    AU - Gesa, L.

    AU - Giani, E.

    AU - Gianotti, F.

    AU - Gillon, M.

    AU - Giro, E.

    AU - Giuranna, M.

    AU - Gomez, H.

    AU - Gomez-Leal, I.

    AU - Gonzalez Hernandez, J.

    AU - González Merino, B.

    AU - Graczyk, R.

    AU - Grassi, D.

    AU - Guardia, J.

    AU - Guio, P.

    AU - Gustin, J.

    AU - Hargrave, P.

    AU - Haigh, J.

    AU - Hébrard, E.

    AU - Heiter, U.

    AU - Heredero, R. L.

    AU - Herrero, E.

    AU - Hersant, F.

    AU - Heyrovsky, D.

    AU - Hollis, M.

    AU - Hubert, B.

    AU - Hueso, R.

    AU - Israelian, G.

    AU - Iro, N.

    AU - Irwin, P.

    AU - Jacquemoud, S.

    AU - Jones, G.

    AU - Jones, H.

    AU - Justtanont, K.

    AU - Kehoe, T.

    AU - Kerschbaum, F.

    AU - Kerins, E.

    AU - Kervella, P.

    AU - Kipping, D.

    AU - Koskinen, T.

    AU - Krupp, N.

    AU - Lahav, O.

    AU - Laken, B.

    AU - Lanza, N.

    AU - Lellouch, E.

    AU - Leto, G.

    AU - Licandro Goldaracena, J.

    AU - Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.

    AU - Liu, S. J.

    AU - Lo Cicero, U.

    AU - Lodieu, N.

    AU - Lognonné, P.

    AU - Lopez-Puertas, M.

    AU - Lopez-Valverde, M. A.

    AU - Lundgaard Rasmussen, I.

    AU - Luntzer, A.

    AU - Machado, P.

    AU - MacTavish, C.

    AU - Maggio, A.

    AU - Maillard, J. P.

    AU - Magnes, W.

    AU - Maldonado, J.

    AU - Mall, U.

    AU - Marquette, J. B.

    AU - Mauskopf, P.

    AU - Massi, F.

    AU - Maurin, A. S.

    AU - Medvedev, A.

    AU - Michaut, C.

    AU - Miles-Paez, P.

    AU - Montalto, M.

    AU - Montañés Rodríguez, P.

    AU - Monteiro, M.

    AU - Montes, D.

    AU - Morais, H.

    AU - Morales, J. C.

    AU - Morales-Calderón, M.

    AU - Morello, G.

    AU - Moro Martín, A.

    AU - Moses, J.

    AU - Moya Bedon, A.

    AU - Murgas Alcaino, F.

    AU - Oliva, E.

    AU - Orton, G.

    AU - Palla, F.

    AU - Pancrazzi, M.

    AU - Pantin, E.

    AU - Parmentier, V.

    AU - Parviainen, H.

    AU - Peña Ramírez, K. Y.

    AU - Peralta, J.

    AU - Perez-Hoyos, S.

    AU - Petrov, R.

    AU - Pezzuto, S.

    AU - Pietrzak, R.

    AU - Pilat-Lohinger, E.

    AU - Piskunov, N.

    AU - Prinja, R.

    AU - Prisinzano, L.

    AU - Polichtchouk, I.

    AU - Poretti, E.

    AU - Radioti, A.

    AU - Ramos, A. A.

    AU - Rank-Lüftinger, T.

    AU - Read, P.

    AU - Readorn, K.

    AU - Rebolo López, R.

    AU - Rebordão, J.

    AU - Rengel, M.

    AU - Rezac, L.

    AU - Rocchetto, M.

    AU - Rodler, F.

    AU - Sánchez Béjar, V. J.

    AU - Sanchez Lavega, A.

    AU - Sanromá, E.

    AU - Santos, N.

    AU - Sanz Forcada, J.

    AU - Scandariato, G.

    AU - Schmider, F. X.

    AU - Scholz, A.

    AU - Scuderi, S.

    AU - Sethenadh, J.

    AU - Shore, S.

    AU - Showman, A.

    AU - Sicardy, B.

    AU - Sitek, P.

    AU - Smith, A.

    AU - Soret, L.

    AU - Sousa, S.

    AU - Stiepen, A.

    AU - Stolarski, M.

    AU - Strazzulla, G.

    AU - Tabernero, H. M.

    AU - Tanga, P.

    AU - Tecsa, M.

    AU - Temple, J.

    AU - Terenzi, L.

    AU - Tessenyi, M.

    AU - Testi, L.

    AU - Thompson, S.

    AU - Thrastarson, H.

    AU - Tingley, B. W.

    AU - Trifoglio, M.

    AU - Martín Torres, J.

    AU - Tozzi, A.

    AU - Turrini, D.

    AU - Varley, R.

    AU - Vakili, F.

    AU - de Val-Borro, M.

    AU - Valdivieso, M. L.

    AU - Venot, O.

    AU - Villaver, E.

    AU - Vinatier, S.

    AU - Viti, S.

    AU - Waldmann, I.

    AU - Waltham, D.

    AU - Ward-Thompson, D.

    AU - Waters, R.

    AU - Watkins, C.

    AU - Watson, D.

    AU - Wawer, P.

    AU - Wawrzaszk, A.

    AU - White, G.

    AU - Widemann, T.

    AU - Winek, W.

    AU - Wiśniowski, T.

    AU - Yelle, R.

    AU - Yung, Y.

    AU - Yurchenko, S. N.

    PY - 2015/12/1

    Y1 - 2015/12/1

    N2 - The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10−4 relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 μm with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 μm. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R ~ 300 for wavelengths less than 5 μm and R ~ 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m2 is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m2 telescope, diffraction limited at 3 μm has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300–3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright “benchmark” cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of > 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO’s launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.

    AB - The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10−4 relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 μm with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 μm. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R ~ 300 for wavelengths less than 5 μm and R ~ 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m2 is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m2 telescope, diffraction limited at 3 μm has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300–3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright “benchmark” cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of > 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO’s launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.

    KW - Atmospheric science

    KW - Exoplanets

    KW - IR astronomy

    KW - Space missions

    KW - Spectroscopy

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84952988750&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84952988750&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1007/s10686-015-9484-8

    DO - 10.1007/s10686-015-9484-8

    M3 - Article

    VL - 40

    SP - 329

    EP - 391

    JO - Experimental Astronomy

    JF - Experimental Astronomy

    SN - 0922-6435

    IS - 2-3

    ER -