The Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment: A new visual perceptual motor skills evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades

Tsu Hsin Howe, Hao Ling Chen, Candy Chieh Lee, Ying Dar Chen, Tien Ni Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Visual perceptual motor skills have been proposed as underlying courses of handwriting difficulties. However, there is no evaluation tool currently available to assess these skills comprehensively and to serve as a sensitive measure. The purpose of this study was to validate the Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment (CPMSA), a newly developed evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades. Its test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness were examined in 43 typically developing children and 26 children with handwriting difficulty. The CPMSA demonstrated excellent reliability across all subtests with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) ≥ 0.80. Significant moderate correlations between the domains of the CPMSA and corresponding gold standards including Beery VMI, the TVPS-3, and the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 demonstrated good concurrent validity. In addition, the CPMSA showed evidence of discriminant validity in samples of children with and without handwriting difficulty. This article provides evidence in support of the CPMSA. The CPMSA is a reliable, valid, and promising measure of visual perceptual motor skills for children in early elementary grades. Directions for future study and improvements to the assessment are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30-38
Number of pages9
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
StatePublished - Oct 2017



  • Assessment tool
  • Computerized evaluation
  • Psychometric properties
  • Visual perceptual motor skills
  • handwriting skills
  • fine motor skills
  • computerized perceptual motor skills
  • motor skills assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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