We describe in detail Sangiran 38 (S38), an adult partial calvaria recovered in 1980 from the Bapang (Kabuh) Formation of the Sangiran Dome near the hamlet of Sendangbusik, Java. Several other hominins (Bukuran, Hanoman 1, and Bs 9706) recovered in the vicinity come from either the upper-most Sangiran (Pucangan) or lower-most Bapang formations. S38 is from the lower Bapang Formation, which 40Ar/39Ar age estimates suggest spans between 1.47 and 1.58Ma. Anatomical and metric comparisons with a worldwide set of 'early non-erectus' Homo, and Homo erectus (sensu lato) fossils indicate S38 is best considered a member of H. erectus. Although smaller in size, S38 is similar in overall morphology to the Bukuran specimen of similar age and provenance. The S38 calvaria exhibits several depressed lesions of the vault consistent with a scalp or systemic infection or soft tissue cyst.
ASJC Scopus subject areas