The Birth of Pork: Local Appropriations in America’s First Century

Sanford Gordon, HANNAH K. SIMPSON

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    After describing a newly assembled dataset consisting of almost 9,000 local appropriations made by the U.S. Congress between 1789 and 1882, we test competing accounts of the politics surrounding them before offering a more nuanced, historically contingent view of the emergence of the pork barrel. We demonstrate that for most of this historical period—despite contemporary accusations of crass electoral motives—the pattern of appropriations is largely inconsistent with accounts of distributive politics grounded in a logic of legislative credit-claiming. Instead, support for appropriations in the House mapped cleanly onto the partisan/ideological structure of Congress for most of this period, and only in the 1870s produced the universalistic coalitions commonly associated with pork-barrel spending. We trace this shift to two historical factors: the emergence of a solid Democratic South, and growth in the fraction of appropriations funding recurrent expenditures on extant projects rather than new starts.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1-16
    Number of pages16
    JournalAmerican Political Science Review
    DOIs
    StateAccepted/In press - Mar 28 2018

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    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Sociology and Political Science
    • Political Science and International Relations

    Cite this

    The Birth of Pork : Local Appropriations in America’s First Century. / Gordon, Sanford; SIMPSON, HANNAH K.

    In: American Political Science Review, 28.03.2018, p. 1-16.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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