TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory

R. Atkins, W. Benbow, D. Berley, E. Blaufuss, J. Bussons, D. G. Coyne, T. DeYoung, B. L. Dingus, D. E. Dorfan, R. W. Ellsworth, L. Fleysher, R. Fleysher, G. Gisler, M. M. Gonzalez, J. A. Goodman, T. J. Haines, E. Hays, C. M. Hoffman, L. A. Kelley, C. P. LansdellJ. T. Linnemann, J. E. McEnery, R. S. Miller, A. I. Mincer, M. F. Morales, P. Nemethy, D. Noyes, J. M. Ryan, F. W. Samuelson, A. Shoup, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, G. W. Sullivan, D. A. Williams, S. Westerhoff, M. E. Wilson, X. W. Xu, G. B. Yodh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Milagro is a water Cerenkov extensive air shower array that continuously monitors the entire overhead sky in the TeV energy band. The results from an analysis of ∼3 yr of data (2000 December-2003 November) are presented. The data have been searched for steady point sources of TeV gamma rays between declinations of 1°.1 and 80°. Two sources are detected, the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Mrk 421. For the remainder of the northern hemisphere, we set 95% confidence level (CL) upper limits between 275 and 600 mcrab (4.8 × 10-12 to 10.5 × 10-12 cm-2 s -1) above 1 TeV for source declinations between 5° and 70°. Since the sensitivity of Milagro depends on the spectrum of the source at the top of the atmosphere, the dependence of the limits on the spectrum of a candidate source is presented. Because high-energy gamma rays from extragalactic sources are absorbed by interactions with the extragalactic background light, the dependence of the flux limits on the redshift of a candidate source are given. The upper limits presented here are over an order of magnitude more stringent than previously published limits from TeV gamma-ray all-sky surveys.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)680-685
    Number of pages6
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume608
    Issue number2 I
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 20 2004

    Fingerprint

    Northern Hemisphere
    sky
    observatories
    observatory
    gamma rays
    point source
    energy
    crab
    declination
    atmosphere
    air
    Crab nebula
    active galaxies
    cosmic ray showers
    water
    point sources
    energy bands
    confidence
    atmospheres
    sensitivity

    Keywords

    • Galaxies: active
    • Gamma rays: observations
    • Surveys

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Atkins, R., Benbow, W., Berley, D., Blaufuss, E., Bussons, J., Coyne, D. G., ... Yodh, G. B. (2004). TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. Astrophysical Journal, 608(2 I), 680-685. https://doi.org/10.1086/420880

    TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. / Atkins, R.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Bussons, J.; Coyne, D. G.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Dorfan, D. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Gisler, G.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Haines, T. J.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Kelley, L. A.; Lansdell, C. P.; Linnemann, J. T.; McEnery, J. E.; Miller, R. S.; Mincer, A. I.; Morales, M. F.; Nemethy, P.; Noyes, D.; Ryan, J. M.; Samuelson, F. W.; Shoup, A.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sullivan, G. W.; Williams, D. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wilson, M. E.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G. B.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 608, No. 2 I, 20.06.2004, p. 680-685.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Atkins, R, Benbow, W, Berley, D, Blaufuss, E, Bussons, J, Coyne, DG, DeYoung, T, Dingus, BL, Dorfan, DE, Ellsworth, RW, Fleysher, L, Fleysher, R, Gisler, G, Gonzalez, MM, Goodman, JA, Haines, TJ, Hays, E, Hoffman, CM, Kelley, LA, Lansdell, CP, Linnemann, JT, McEnery, JE, Miller, RS, Mincer, AI, Morales, MF, Nemethy, P, Noyes, D, Ryan, JM, Samuelson, FW, Shoup, A, Sinnis, G, Smith, AJ, Sullivan, GW, Williams, DA, Westerhoff, S, Wilson, ME, Xu, XW & Yodh, GB 2004, 'TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 608, no. 2 I, pp. 680-685. https://doi.org/10.1086/420880
    Atkins R, Benbow W, Berley D, Blaufuss E, Bussons J, Coyne DG et al. TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. Astrophysical Journal. 2004 Jun 20;608(2 I):680-685. https://doi.org/10.1086/420880
    Atkins, R. ; Benbow, W. ; Berley, D. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Bussons, J. ; Coyne, D. G. ; DeYoung, T. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Dorfan, D. E. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Fleysher, L. ; Fleysher, R. ; Gisler, G. ; Gonzalez, M. M. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Haines, T. J. ; Hays, E. ; Hoffman, C. M. ; Kelley, L. A. ; Lansdell, C. P. ; Linnemann, J. T. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Miller, R. S. ; Mincer, A. I. ; Morales, M. F. ; Nemethy, P. ; Noyes, D. ; Ryan, J. M. ; Samuelson, F. W. ; Shoup, A. ; Sinnis, G. ; Smith, A. J. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Williams, D. A. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Wilson, M. E. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yodh, G. B. / TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2004 ; Vol. 608, No. 2 I. pp. 680-685.
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    abstract = "Milagro is a water Cerenkov extensive air shower array that continuously monitors the entire overhead sky in the TeV energy band. The results from an analysis of ∼3 yr of data (2000 December-2003 November) are presented. The data have been searched for steady point sources of TeV gamma rays between declinations of 1°.1 and 80°. Two sources are detected, the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Mrk 421. For the remainder of the northern hemisphere, we set 95{\%} confidence level (CL) upper limits between 275 and 600 mcrab (4.8 × 10-12 to 10.5 × 10-12 cm-2 s -1) above 1 TeV for source declinations between 5° and 70°. Since the sensitivity of Milagro depends on the spectrum of the source at the top of the atmosphere, the dependence of the limits on the spectrum of a candidate source is presented. Because high-energy gamma rays from extragalactic sources are absorbed by interactions with the extragalactic background light, the dependence of the flux limits on the redshift of a candidate source are given. The upper limits presented here are over an order of magnitude more stringent than previously published limits from TeV gamma-ray all-sky surveys.",
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    T1 - TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory

    AU - Atkins, R.

    AU - Benbow, W.

    AU - Berley, D.

    AU - Blaufuss, E.

    AU - Bussons, J.

    AU - Coyne, D. G.

    AU - DeYoung, T.

    AU - Dingus, B. L.

    AU - Dorfan, D. E.

    AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

    AU - Fleysher, L.

    AU - Fleysher, R.

    AU - Gisler, G.

    AU - Gonzalez, M. M.

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    AU - Haines, T. J.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Hoffman, C. M.

    AU - Kelley, L. A.

    AU - Lansdell, C. P.

    AU - Linnemann, J. T.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Miller, R. S.

    AU - Mincer, A. I.

    AU - Morales, M. F.

    AU - Nemethy, P.

    AU - Noyes, D.

    AU - Ryan, J. M.

    AU - Samuelson, F. W.

    AU - Shoup, A.

    AU - Sinnis, G.

    AU - Smith, A. J.

    AU - Sullivan, G. W.

    AU - Williams, D. A.

    AU - Westerhoff, S.

    AU - Wilson, M. E.

    AU - Xu, X. W.

    AU - Yodh, G. B.

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