Subcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants With Autism Versus Language Delay

Meghan R. Swanson, Mark D. Shen, Jason J. Wolff, Jed T. Elison, Robert W. Emerson, Martin A. Styner, Heather C. Hazlett, Kinh Truong, Linda R. Watson, Sarah Paterson, Natasha Marrus, Kelly N. Botteron, Juhi Pandey, Robert T. Schultz, Stephen R. Dager, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Annette M. Estes, Joseph Piven, J. Piven, H. C. HazlettC. Chappell, S. Dager, A. M. Estes, D. Shaw, K. Botteron, R. McKinstry, J. Constantino, J. Pruett, R. T. Schultz, J. Pandey, S. Paterson, L. Zwaigenbaum, J. T. Elison, J. J. Wolff, A. C. Evans, D. L. Collins, G. B. Pike, V. Fonov, P. Kostopoulos, S. Das, Guido Gerig, M. Styner, H. Gu

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Background Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language, and their receptive-expressive language profiles are often atypical. Yet, little is known about the neurobiology that contributes to these language difficulties. Methods In this study, we used behavioral assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging to investigate early brain structures and associations with later language skills. High-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD (n = 86) were compared with high-risk infants who showed signs of early language delay (n = 41) as well as with high- and low-risk infants who did not have ASD or language delay (n = 255 and 143, respectively). Results Results indicated that diminished language skills were evident at 12 months in infants with ASD and infants with early language delay. At 24 months of age, only the infants with ASD displayed atypical receptive-expressive language profiles. Associations between 12-month subcortical volumes and 24-month language skills were moderated by group status, indicating disordinal brain-behavior associations among infants with ASD and infants with language delay. Conclusions These results suggest that there are different brain mechanisms influencing language development in infants with ASD and infants with language delay, and that the two groups likely experience unique sets of genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)664-672
    Number of pages9
    JournalBiological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
    Volume2
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Nov 1 2017

    Fingerprint

    Language Development Disorders
    Autistic Disorder
    Phenotype
    Brain
    Language
    Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Sign Language
    Language Development
    Neurobiology
    Siblings

    Keywords

    • ASD
    • Brain
    • Infancy
    • Language delay
    • Language profile
    • Subcortical structure

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
    • Cognitive Neuroscience
    • Clinical Neurology
    • Biological Psychiatry

    Cite this

    Subcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants With Autism Versus Language Delay. / Swanson, Meghan R.; Shen, Mark D.; Wolff, Jason J.; Elison, Jed T.; Emerson, Robert W.; Styner, Martin A.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Truong, Kinh; Watson, Linda R.; Paterson, Sarah; Marrus, Natasha; Botteron, Kelly N.; Pandey, Juhi; Schultz, Robert T.; Dager, Stephen R.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Estes, Annette M.; Piven, Joseph; Piven, J.; Hazlett, H. C.; Chappell, C.; Dager, S.; Estes, A. M.; Shaw, D.; Botteron, K.; McKinstry, R.; Constantino, J.; Pruett, J.; Schultz, R. T.; Pandey, J.; Paterson, S.; Zwaigenbaum, L.; Elison, J. T.; Wolff, J. J.; Evans, A. C.; Collins, D. L.; Pike, G. B.; Fonov, V.; Kostopoulos, P.; Das, S.; Gerig, Guido; Styner, M.; Gu, H.

    In: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, Vol. 2, No. 8, 01.11.2017, p. 664-672.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Swanson, MR, Shen, MD, Wolff, JJ, Elison, JT, Emerson, RW, Styner, MA, Hazlett, HC, Truong, K, Watson, LR, Paterson, S, Marrus, N, Botteron, KN, Pandey, J, Schultz, RT, Dager, SR, Zwaigenbaum, L, Estes, AM, Piven, J, Piven, J, Hazlett, HC, Chappell, C, Dager, S, Estes, AM, Shaw, D, Botteron, K, McKinstry, R, Constantino, J, Pruett, J, Schultz, RT, Pandey, J, Paterson, S, Zwaigenbaum, L, Elison, JT, Wolff, JJ, Evans, AC, Collins, DL, Pike, GB, Fonov, V, Kostopoulos, P, Das, S, Gerig, G, Styner, M & Gu, H 2017, 'Subcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants With Autism Versus Language Delay', Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 664-672. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.07.007
    Swanson, Meghan R. ; Shen, Mark D. ; Wolff, Jason J. ; Elison, Jed T. ; Emerson, Robert W. ; Styner, Martin A. ; Hazlett, Heather C. ; Truong, Kinh ; Watson, Linda R. ; Paterson, Sarah ; Marrus, Natasha ; Botteron, Kelly N. ; Pandey, Juhi ; Schultz, Robert T. ; Dager, Stephen R. ; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie ; Estes, Annette M. ; Piven, Joseph ; Piven, J. ; Hazlett, H. C. ; Chappell, C. ; Dager, S. ; Estes, A. M. ; Shaw, D. ; Botteron, K. ; McKinstry, R. ; Constantino, J. ; Pruett, J. ; Schultz, R. T. ; Pandey, J. ; Paterson, S. ; Zwaigenbaum, L. ; Elison, J. T. ; Wolff, J. J. ; Evans, A. C. ; Collins, D. L. ; Pike, G. B. ; Fonov, V. ; Kostopoulos, P. ; Das, S. ; Gerig, Guido ; Styner, M. ; Gu, H. / Subcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants With Autism Versus Language Delay. In: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging. 2017 ; Vol. 2, No. 8. pp. 664-672.
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    abstract = "Background Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language, and their receptive-expressive language profiles are often atypical. Yet, little is known about the neurobiology that contributes to these language difficulties. Methods In this study, we used behavioral assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging to investigate early brain structures and associations with later language skills. High-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD (n = 86) were compared with high-risk infants who showed signs of early language delay (n = 41) as well as with high- and low-risk infants who did not have ASD or language delay (n = 255 and 143, respectively). Results Results indicated that diminished language skills were evident at 12 months in infants with ASD and infants with early language delay. At 24 months of age, only the infants with ASD displayed atypical receptive-expressive language profiles. Associations between 12-month subcortical volumes and 24-month language skills were moderated by group status, indicating disordinal brain-behavior associations among infants with ASD and infants with language delay. Conclusions These results suggest that there are different brain mechanisms influencing language development in infants with ASD and infants with language delay, and that the two groups likely experience unique sets of genetic and environmental risk factors.",
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    T1 - Subcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants With Autism Versus Language Delay

    AU - Swanson, Meghan R.

    AU - Shen, Mark D.

    AU - Wolff, Jason J.

    AU - Elison, Jed T.

    AU - Emerson, Robert W.

    AU - Styner, Martin A.

    AU - Hazlett, Heather C.

    AU - Truong, Kinh

    AU - Watson, Linda R.

    AU - Paterson, Sarah

    AU - Marrus, Natasha

    AU - Botteron, Kelly N.

    AU - Pandey, Juhi

    AU - Schultz, Robert T.

    AU - Dager, Stephen R.

    AU - Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    AU - Estes, Annette M.

    AU - Piven, Joseph

    AU - Piven, J.

    AU - Hazlett, H. C.

    AU - Chappell, C.

    AU - Dager, S.

    AU - Estes, A. M.

    AU - Shaw, D.

    AU - Botteron, K.

    AU - McKinstry, R.

    AU - Constantino, J.

    AU - Pruett, J.

    AU - Schultz, R. T.

    AU - Pandey, J.

    AU - Paterson, S.

    AU - Zwaigenbaum, L.

    AU - Elison, J. T.

    AU - Wolff, J. J.

    AU - Evans, A. C.

    AU - Collins, D. L.

    AU - Pike, G. B.

    AU - Fonov, V.

    AU - Kostopoulos, P.

    AU - Das, S.

    AU - Gerig, Guido

    AU - Styner, M.

    AU - Gu, H.

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    N2 - Background Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language, and their receptive-expressive language profiles are often atypical. Yet, little is known about the neurobiology that contributes to these language difficulties. Methods In this study, we used behavioral assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging to investigate early brain structures and associations with later language skills. High-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD (n = 86) were compared with high-risk infants who showed signs of early language delay (n = 41) as well as with high- and low-risk infants who did not have ASD or language delay (n = 255 and 143, respectively). Results Results indicated that diminished language skills were evident at 12 months in infants with ASD and infants with early language delay. At 24 months of age, only the infants with ASD displayed atypical receptive-expressive language profiles. Associations between 12-month subcortical volumes and 24-month language skills were moderated by group status, indicating disordinal brain-behavior associations among infants with ASD and infants with language delay. Conclusions These results suggest that there are different brain mechanisms influencing language development in infants with ASD and infants with language delay, and that the two groups likely experience unique sets of genetic and environmental risk factors.

    AB - Background Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language, and their receptive-expressive language profiles are often atypical. Yet, little is known about the neurobiology that contributes to these language difficulties. Methods In this study, we used behavioral assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging to investigate early brain structures and associations with later language skills. High-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD (n = 86) were compared with high-risk infants who showed signs of early language delay (n = 41) as well as with high- and low-risk infants who did not have ASD or language delay (n = 255 and 143, respectively). Results Results indicated that diminished language skills were evident at 12 months in infants with ASD and infants with early language delay. At 24 months of age, only the infants with ASD displayed atypical receptive-expressive language profiles. Associations between 12-month subcortical volumes and 24-month language skills were moderated by group status, indicating disordinal brain-behavior associations among infants with ASD and infants with language delay. Conclusions These results suggest that there are different brain mechanisms influencing language development in infants with ASD and infants with language delay, and that the two groups likely experience unique sets of genetic and environmental risk factors.

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    KW - Brain

    KW - Infancy

    KW - Language delay

    KW - Language profile

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