An oligodeoxyribonucleotide 5'-d(CTCATG(AP)ATTCC), in which GAP denotes N-(guanin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene, the CS-guanine adduct of reductively activated 1-nitropyrene, was synthesized and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and thermal melting studies. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed slower mobility of the adducted oligonucleotide in single-stranded form compared to its unmodified counterpart, as expected. In duplex form, however (with a deoxycytidine opposite the adduct), the adducted 11mer migrated faster than the parent duplex. Absorption and fluorescence studies indicated significant interaction of the aminopyrene residue with the DNA bases in the modified 11mer. The spectroscopic data also suggested the presence of one or more conformers in which the aminopyrene residue is quasi-intercalative, as well as one(s) in which the aminopyrene is externally bound. Thermodynamic parameters for the helix-to-coil transitions for the 11mer duplex were determined. The difference in free energy (ΔΔG°) between the unmodified and modified sequences was relatively small (~ 1.2 kcal/mol). Circular dichroism spectra indicated the presence of essentially B-form DNA. The energy minimizations suggested that the most stable conformers shared a common feature: displacement of the modified guanine from the double helix. In the global minimum, the aminopyrene residue was inserted in the helix in the site of displaced guanine. In other low energy structures, the aminopyrene was also displaced towards the minor groove (in addition to guanine), or partly inserted and partly in the groove. More conventional structures were also encountered, with anti-guanine within the helix and aminopyrene in the major groove, or syn-guanine within the helix, and aminopyrene in the minor groove. Such structures were 12-20 kcal/mol less stable than the global minimum, however. The CS-guanine adduct of aminopyrene thus appears to perturb the B-DNA structure to a greater extent than do the adducts of less bulky amines such as aminofluorene and 4-aminobiphenyl.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research