Smoking characteristics and comorbidities in the power to quit randomized clinical trial for homeless smokers

Kolawole S. Okuyemi, Kate Goldade, Guy Lucien Whembolua, Janet L. Thomas, Sara Eischen, Hongfei Guo, John Connett, Jon Grant, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia, Ken Resnicow, Greg Owen, Lillian Gelberg, Don Des Jarlais

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Smoking prevalence in homeless populations is strikingly high (~ 70%); yet, little is known about effective smoking cessation interventions for this population. We conducted a community-based clinical trial, Power To Quit (PTQ), to assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) and nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT ]) on smoking cessation among homeless smokers. This paper describes the smoking characteristics and comorbidities of smokers in the study. Methods: Four hundred and thirty homeless adult smokers were randomized to either the intervention arm (NRT + MI) or the control arm (NRT + Brief Advice). Baseline assessment included demographic information, shelter status, smoking history, motivation to quit smoking, alcohol/other substance abuse, and psychiatric comorbidities. Results: Of the 849 individuals who completed the eligibility survey, 578 (68.1%) were eligible and 430 (74.4% of eligibles) were enrolled. Participants were predominantly Black, male, and had mean age of 44.4 years (S D=9.9), and the majority were unemployed (90.5%). Most participants reported sleeping in emergency shelters; nearly half had been homeless for more than a year. Nearly all the participants were daily smokers who smoked an average of 20 cigarettes/day. Nearly 40% had patient health questionnaire-9 depression scores in the moderate or worse range, and more than 80% screened positive for lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of enrolling a diverse sample of homeless smokers into a smoking cessation clinical trial. The uniqueness of the study sample enables investigators to examine the influence of nicotine dependence as well as psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities on smoking cessation outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-28
Number of pages7
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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Smoking Cessation
Substance-Related Disorders
Comorbidity
Randomized Controlled Trials
Smoking
Nicotine
Motivational Interviewing
Psychiatry
Emergency Shelter
Clinical Trials
Tobacco Use Cessation Products
Tobacco Use Disorder
Feasibility Studies
Tobacco Products
Population
Motivation
Therapeutics
History
Alcohols
Research Personnel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Smoking characteristics and comorbidities in the power to quit randomized clinical trial for homeless smokers. / Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Goldade, Kate; Whembolua, Guy Lucien; Thomas, Janet L.; Eischen, Sara; Guo, Hongfei; Connett, John; Grant, Jon; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Resnicow, Ken; Owen, Greg; Gelberg, Lillian; Des Jarlais, Don.

In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 01.01.2013, p. 22-28.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Okuyemi, KS, Goldade, K, Whembolua, GL, Thomas, JL, Eischen, S, Guo, H, Connett, J, Grant, J, Ahluwalia, JS, Resnicow, K, Owen, G, Gelberg, L & Des Jarlais, D 2013, 'Smoking characteristics and comorbidities in the power to quit randomized clinical trial for homeless smokers', Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 22-28. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts030
Okuyemi, Kolawole S. ; Goldade, Kate ; Whembolua, Guy Lucien ; Thomas, Janet L. ; Eischen, Sara ; Guo, Hongfei ; Connett, John ; Grant, Jon ; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S. ; Resnicow, Ken ; Owen, Greg ; Gelberg, Lillian ; Des Jarlais, Don. / Smoking characteristics and comorbidities in the power to quit randomized clinical trial for homeless smokers. In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2013 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 22-28.
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AU - Goldade, Kate

AU - Whembolua, Guy Lucien

AU - Thomas, Janet L.

AU - Eischen, Sara

AU - Guo, Hongfei

AU - Connett, John

AU - Grant, Jon

AU - Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

AU - Resnicow, Ken

AU - Owen, Greg

AU - Gelberg, Lillian

AU - Des Jarlais, Don

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N2 - Introduction: Smoking prevalence in homeless populations is strikingly high (~ 70%); yet, little is known about effective smoking cessation interventions for this population. We conducted a community-based clinical trial, Power To Quit (PTQ), to assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) and nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT ]) on smoking cessation among homeless smokers. This paper describes the smoking characteristics and comorbidities of smokers in the study. Methods: Four hundred and thirty homeless adult smokers were randomized to either the intervention arm (NRT + MI) or the control arm (NRT + Brief Advice). Baseline assessment included demographic information, shelter status, smoking history, motivation to quit smoking, alcohol/other substance abuse, and psychiatric comorbidities. Results: Of the 849 individuals who completed the eligibility survey, 578 (68.1%) were eligible and 430 (74.4% of eligibles) were enrolled. Participants were predominantly Black, male, and had mean age of 44.4 years (S D=9.9), and the majority were unemployed (90.5%). Most participants reported sleeping in emergency shelters; nearly half had been homeless for more than a year. Nearly all the participants were daily smokers who smoked an average of 20 cigarettes/day. Nearly 40% had patient health questionnaire-9 depression scores in the moderate or worse range, and more than 80% screened positive for lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of enrolling a diverse sample of homeless smokers into a smoking cessation clinical trial. The uniqueness of the study sample enables investigators to examine the influence of nicotine dependence as well as psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities on smoking cessation outcomes.

AB - Introduction: Smoking prevalence in homeless populations is strikingly high (~ 70%); yet, little is known about effective smoking cessation interventions for this population. We conducted a community-based clinical trial, Power To Quit (PTQ), to assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) and nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT ]) on smoking cessation among homeless smokers. This paper describes the smoking characteristics and comorbidities of smokers in the study. Methods: Four hundred and thirty homeless adult smokers were randomized to either the intervention arm (NRT + MI) or the control arm (NRT + Brief Advice). Baseline assessment included demographic information, shelter status, smoking history, motivation to quit smoking, alcohol/other substance abuse, and psychiatric comorbidities. Results: Of the 849 individuals who completed the eligibility survey, 578 (68.1%) were eligible and 430 (74.4% of eligibles) were enrolled. Participants were predominantly Black, male, and had mean age of 44.4 years (S D=9.9), and the majority were unemployed (90.5%). Most participants reported sleeping in emergency shelters; nearly half had been homeless for more than a year. Nearly all the participants were daily smokers who smoked an average of 20 cigarettes/day. Nearly 40% had patient health questionnaire-9 depression scores in the moderate or worse range, and more than 80% screened positive for lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of enrolling a diverse sample of homeless smokers into a smoking cessation clinical trial. The uniqueness of the study sample enables investigators to examine the influence of nicotine dependence as well as psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities on smoking cessation outcomes.

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