Small Convenience Stores and the Local Food Environment: An Analysis of Resident Shopping Behavior Using Multilevel Modeling

Ryan Ruff, Ali Akhund, Tamar Adjoian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose. Local food environments can influence the diet and health of individuals through food availability, proximity to retail stores, pricing, and promotion. This study focused on how small convenience stores, known in New York City as bodegas, influence resident shopping behavior and the food environment. Design. Using a cross-sectional design, 171 bodegas and 2118 shoppers were sampled. Setting. Small convenience stores in New York City. Subjects. Any bodega shopper aged 18+ who purchased food or beverage from a participating store. Measures. Data collection consisted of a store assessment, a health and behavior survey given to exiting customers, and a bag check that recorded product information for all customer purchases. Analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated for bodega store characteristics, shopper demographics, and purchase behavior. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of product availability, placement, and advertising on consumer purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), water, and fruits and vegetables. Results. Seventy-one percent of participants reported shopping at bodegas five or more times per week, and 35% reported purchasing all or most of their monthly food allotment at bodegas. Model results indicated that lower amounts of available fresh produce were significantly and independently associated with a higher likelihood of SSB purchases. A second, stratified multilevel model showed that the likelihood of purchasing an SSB increased with decreasing varieties of produce when produce was located at the front of the store. No significant effects were found for water placement and beverage advertising. Conclusions. Small convenience stores in New York City are an easily accessible source of foods and beverages. Bodegas may be suitable for interventions designed to improve food choice and diet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)172-180
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Volume30
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Fingerprint

Beverages
resident
food
Food
Food and Beverages
purchase
Diet
Water
customer
Health Behavior
product placement
Health Surveys
Vegetables
water
Fruit
Demography
descriptive statistics
vegetables
health
Costs and Cost Analysis

Keywords

  • Food Environment
  • Health focus: nutrition
  • Manuscript format: research
  • Multilevel Analysis
  • Outcome measure: behavioral
  • Prevention Research
  • Research purpose: modeling/relationship testing
  • Setting: local community
  • Shopping Behavior
  • Strategy: behavior change, built environment
  • Study design: nonexperimental
  • Target population age: adults
  • Target population circumstances: education/income level, race/ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Small Convenience Stores and the Local Food Environment : An Analysis of Resident Shopping Behavior Using Multilevel Modeling. / Ruff, Ryan; Akhund, Ali; Adjoian, Tamar.

In: American Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 30, No. 3, 01.01.2016, p. 172-180.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{22b3513d622b4a44a7b1525bd19077cc,
title = "Small Convenience Stores and the Local Food Environment: An Analysis of Resident Shopping Behavior Using Multilevel Modeling",
abstract = "Purpose. Local food environments can influence the diet and health of individuals through food availability, proximity to retail stores, pricing, and promotion. This study focused on how small convenience stores, known in New York City as bodegas, influence resident shopping behavior and the food environment. Design. Using a cross-sectional design, 171 bodegas and 2118 shoppers were sampled. Setting. Small convenience stores in New York City. Subjects. Any bodega shopper aged 18+ who purchased food or beverage from a participating store. Measures. Data collection consisted of a store assessment, a health and behavior survey given to exiting customers, and a bag check that recorded product information for all customer purchases. Analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated for bodega store characteristics, shopper demographics, and purchase behavior. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of product availability, placement, and advertising on consumer purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), water, and fruits and vegetables. Results. Seventy-one percent of participants reported shopping at bodegas five or more times per week, and 35{\%} reported purchasing all or most of their monthly food allotment at bodegas. Model results indicated that lower amounts of available fresh produce were significantly and independently associated with a higher likelihood of SSB purchases. A second, stratified multilevel model showed that the likelihood of purchasing an SSB increased with decreasing varieties of produce when produce was located at the front of the store. No significant effects were found for water placement and beverage advertising. Conclusions. Small convenience stores in New York City are an easily accessible source of foods and beverages. Bodegas may be suitable for interventions designed to improve food choice and diet.",
keywords = "Food Environment, Health focus: nutrition, Manuscript format: research, Multilevel Analysis, Outcome measure: behavioral, Prevention Research, Research purpose: modeling/relationship testing, Setting: local community, Shopping Behavior, Strategy: behavior change, built environment, Study design: nonexperimental, Target population age: adults, Target population circumstances: education/income level, race/ethnicity",
author = "Ryan Ruff and Ali Akhund and Tamar Adjoian",
year = "2016",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.4278/ajhp.140326-QUAN-121",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "30",
pages = "172--180",
journal = "American Journal of Health Promotion",
issn = "0890-1171",
publisher = "American Journal of Health Promotion",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Small Convenience Stores and the Local Food Environment

T2 - An Analysis of Resident Shopping Behavior Using Multilevel Modeling

AU - Ruff, Ryan

AU - Akhund, Ali

AU - Adjoian, Tamar

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - Purpose. Local food environments can influence the diet and health of individuals through food availability, proximity to retail stores, pricing, and promotion. This study focused on how small convenience stores, known in New York City as bodegas, influence resident shopping behavior and the food environment. Design. Using a cross-sectional design, 171 bodegas and 2118 shoppers were sampled. Setting. Small convenience stores in New York City. Subjects. Any bodega shopper aged 18+ who purchased food or beverage from a participating store. Measures. Data collection consisted of a store assessment, a health and behavior survey given to exiting customers, and a bag check that recorded product information for all customer purchases. Analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated for bodega store characteristics, shopper demographics, and purchase behavior. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of product availability, placement, and advertising on consumer purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), water, and fruits and vegetables. Results. Seventy-one percent of participants reported shopping at bodegas five or more times per week, and 35% reported purchasing all or most of their monthly food allotment at bodegas. Model results indicated that lower amounts of available fresh produce were significantly and independently associated with a higher likelihood of SSB purchases. A second, stratified multilevel model showed that the likelihood of purchasing an SSB increased with decreasing varieties of produce when produce was located at the front of the store. No significant effects were found for water placement and beverage advertising. Conclusions. Small convenience stores in New York City are an easily accessible source of foods and beverages. Bodegas may be suitable for interventions designed to improve food choice and diet.

AB - Purpose. Local food environments can influence the diet and health of individuals through food availability, proximity to retail stores, pricing, and promotion. This study focused on how small convenience stores, known in New York City as bodegas, influence resident shopping behavior and the food environment. Design. Using a cross-sectional design, 171 bodegas and 2118 shoppers were sampled. Setting. Small convenience stores in New York City. Subjects. Any bodega shopper aged 18+ who purchased food or beverage from a participating store. Measures. Data collection consisted of a store assessment, a health and behavior survey given to exiting customers, and a bag check that recorded product information for all customer purchases. Analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated for bodega store characteristics, shopper demographics, and purchase behavior. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of product availability, placement, and advertising on consumer purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), water, and fruits and vegetables. Results. Seventy-one percent of participants reported shopping at bodegas five or more times per week, and 35% reported purchasing all or most of their monthly food allotment at bodegas. Model results indicated that lower amounts of available fresh produce were significantly and independently associated with a higher likelihood of SSB purchases. A second, stratified multilevel model showed that the likelihood of purchasing an SSB increased with decreasing varieties of produce when produce was located at the front of the store. No significant effects were found for water placement and beverage advertising. Conclusions. Small convenience stores in New York City are an easily accessible source of foods and beverages. Bodegas may be suitable for interventions designed to improve food choice and diet.

KW - Food Environment

KW - Health focus: nutrition

KW - Manuscript format: research

KW - Multilevel Analysis

KW - Outcome measure: behavioral

KW - Prevention Research

KW - Research purpose: modeling/relationship testing

KW - Setting: local community

KW - Shopping Behavior

KW - Strategy: behavior change, built environment

KW - Study design: nonexperimental

KW - Target population age: adults

KW - Target population circumstances: education/income level, race/ethnicity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84975126625&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84975126625&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4278/ajhp.140326-QUAN-121

DO - 10.4278/ajhp.140326-QUAN-121

M3 - Article

C2 - 25806566

AN - SCOPUS:84975126625

VL - 30

SP - 172

EP - 180

JO - American Journal of Health Promotion

JF - American Journal of Health Promotion

SN - 0890-1171

IS - 3

ER -