Self-assembly of conjugated polymers at the air/water interface. Structure and properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes

Niels Reitzel, Daniel R. Greve, Kristian Kjaer, Paul B. Howes, Manikandan Jayaraman, Steve Savoy, Richard D. McCullough, John McDevitt, Thomas Bjørnholm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper provides the first direct structural evidence describing conjugated polymer self-assembly at the air - water interface. Grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity measurements on a number of derivatives of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes (e.g., poly(3'-dodecyl-3-(2,5,8-trioxanonyl)-2',5-bithiophene), polymer 1) show that these conjugated polymers self-assemble as 2-dimensional polycrystalline monolayers at the air/water interface with the amphiphilic polymers preorganized into rigid boards standing edge-on on the water surface. The monolayer consists of highly ordered (~70% crystalline) domains, with a centered rectangular unit cell having the polymer backbone along the a-axis and the thiophene π-stack along the b axis with a distance of 3.85-3.94 Å depending on the applied surface pressure. These domains are connected by soft, more disordered boundaries. This is evidenced by the macroscopic compressibility of the entire LB film (C(macro) ≃ 4-7 m/N) being one order of magnitude larger than the microscopic compressibility (C(micro) ≃ 0.6 m/N) of the polycrystalline domains. The alkyl chains in the 3-position of the thiophene rings are in a crystallographically disordered state due to their cross-sectional mismatch with the packing of the thiophenes. The importance of having the side chains coupled in a regioregular fashion to the 3-position of the thiophene rings is evidenced by a dramatic increase in the coherence length of the crystalline domains for highly regioregular samples (> 95% head-tail couplings) as compared to less regioregularly coupled polymers (~80% head-tail couplings). Transfer to solid support by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique induces an overall orientation of the domains in the film, giving rise to a dichroic ratio of up to 4. Reflection - absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) shows that the alkyl chains of transferred films are in an all-trans conformation with a locally ordered environment, having only few gauche defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5788-5800
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume122
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 21 2000

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Thiophenes
Langmuir Blodgett films
Conjugated polymers
Self assembly
Thiophene
Polymers
Air
Water
Compressibility
Monolayers
Crystalline materials
Absorption spectroscopy
Head
Macros
Conformations
Infrared spectroscopy
Derivatives
X-Ray Diffraction
X ray diffraction
X rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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Self-assembly of conjugated polymers at the air/water interface. Structure and properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes. / Reitzel, Niels; Greve, Daniel R.; Kjaer, Kristian; Howes, Paul B.; Jayaraman, Manikandan; Savoy, Steve; McCullough, Richard D.; McDevitt, John; Bjørnholm, Thomas.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 122, No. 24, 21.06.2000, p. 5788-5800.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reitzel, Niels ; Greve, Daniel R. ; Kjaer, Kristian ; Howes, Paul B. ; Jayaraman, Manikandan ; Savoy, Steve ; McCullough, Richard D. ; McDevitt, John ; Bjørnholm, Thomas. / Self-assembly of conjugated polymers at the air/water interface. Structure and properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2000 ; Vol. 122, No. 24. pp. 5788-5800.
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abstract = "This paper provides the first direct structural evidence describing conjugated polymer self-assembly at the air - water interface. Grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity measurements on a number of derivatives of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes (e.g., poly(3'-dodecyl-3-(2,5,8-trioxanonyl)-2',5-bithiophene), polymer 1) show that these conjugated polymers self-assemble as 2-dimensional polycrystalline monolayers at the air/water interface with the amphiphilic polymers preorganized into rigid boards standing edge-on on the water surface. The monolayer consists of highly ordered (~70{\%} crystalline) domains, with a centered rectangular unit cell having the polymer backbone along the a-axis and the thiophene π-stack along the b axis with a distance of 3.85-3.94 {\AA} depending on the applied surface pressure. These domains are connected by soft, more disordered boundaries. This is evidenced by the macroscopic compressibility of the entire LB film (C(macro) ≃ 4-7 m/N) being one order of magnitude larger than the microscopic compressibility (C(micro) ≃ 0.6 m/N) of the polycrystalline domains. The alkyl chains in the 3-position of the thiophene rings are in a crystallographically disordered state due to their cross-sectional mismatch with the packing of the thiophenes. The importance of having the side chains coupled in a regioregular fashion to the 3-position of the thiophene rings is evidenced by a dramatic increase in the coherence length of the crystalline domains for highly regioregular samples (> 95{\%} head-tail couplings) as compared to less regioregularly coupled polymers (~80{\%} head-tail couplings). Transfer to solid support by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique induces an overall orientation of the domains in the film, giving rise to a dichroic ratio of up to 4. Reflection - absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) shows that the alkyl chains of transferred films are in an all-trans conformation with a locally ordered environment, having only few gauche defects.",
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AU - Greve, Daniel R.

AU - Kjaer, Kristian

AU - Howes, Paul B.

AU - Jayaraman, Manikandan

AU - Savoy, Steve

AU - McCullough, Richard D.

AU - McDevitt, John

AU - Bjørnholm, Thomas

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N2 - This paper provides the first direct structural evidence describing conjugated polymer self-assembly at the air - water interface. Grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity measurements on a number of derivatives of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes (e.g., poly(3'-dodecyl-3-(2,5,8-trioxanonyl)-2',5-bithiophene), polymer 1) show that these conjugated polymers self-assemble as 2-dimensional polycrystalline monolayers at the air/water interface with the amphiphilic polymers preorganized into rigid boards standing edge-on on the water surface. The monolayer consists of highly ordered (~70% crystalline) domains, with a centered rectangular unit cell having the polymer backbone along the a-axis and the thiophene π-stack along the b axis with a distance of 3.85-3.94 Å depending on the applied surface pressure. These domains are connected by soft, more disordered boundaries. This is evidenced by the macroscopic compressibility of the entire LB film (C(macro) ≃ 4-7 m/N) being one order of magnitude larger than the microscopic compressibility (C(micro) ≃ 0.6 m/N) of the polycrystalline domains. The alkyl chains in the 3-position of the thiophene rings are in a crystallographically disordered state due to their cross-sectional mismatch with the packing of the thiophenes. The importance of having the side chains coupled in a regioregular fashion to the 3-position of the thiophene rings is evidenced by a dramatic increase in the coherence length of the crystalline domains for highly regioregular samples (> 95% head-tail couplings) as compared to less regioregularly coupled polymers (~80% head-tail couplings). Transfer to solid support by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique induces an overall orientation of the domains in the film, giving rise to a dichroic ratio of up to 4. Reflection - absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) shows that the alkyl chains of transferred films are in an all-trans conformation with a locally ordered environment, having only few gauche defects.

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