Seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine uptake, predictors of vaccination and self-reported barriers to vaccination among secondary school teachers and staff

Lisa M. Gargano, Julia E. Painter, Jessica M. Sales, Christopher Morfaw, La Dawna M. Jones, Dennis Murray, Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. DiClemente, James M. Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: Teachers, like healthcare workers, may be a strategic target for influenza immunization programs. Influenza vaccination is critical to protect both teachers and the students they come into contact with. This study assessed factors associated with seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccine uptake among middle- and high-school teachers. Results: Seventy-eight percent of teachers who planned to receive seasonal influenza vaccine and 36% of those who planned to receive H1N1 influenza vaccine at baseline reported that they did so. Seasonal vaccine uptake was significantly associated with perceived severity (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, p = 0.05) and self-efficacy (OR 4.46, p = 0.006). H1N1 vaccine uptake was associated with perceived barriers (OR 0.7, p = 0.014) and social norms (OR 1.39, p = 0.05). The number one reason for both seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccine uptake was to avoid getting seasonal/H1N1 influenza disease. The number one reason for seasonal influenza vaccine refusal was a concern it would make them sick and for H1N1 influenza vaccine refusal was concern about vaccine side effects. Methods: Participants were recruited from two counties in rural Georgia. Data were collected from surveys in September 2009 and May 2010. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between teachers' attitudes toward seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccination and vaccine uptake. Conclusions: There is a strong association between the intention to be vaccinated against influenza (seasonal or 2009 H1N1) and actual vaccination uptake. Understanding and addressing factors associated with teachers' influenza vaccine uptake may enhance future influenza immunization efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-95
Number of pages7
JournalHuman Vaccines
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011



  • Adolescents
  • Attitudes
  • H1N1 influenza
  • Health belief model
  • Seasonal influenza
  • Teachers
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this