Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: Evidence for developmental change

Marjorie Rhodes, Daniel Brickman, Susan A. Gelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N = 133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)543-556
Number of pages14
JournalCognition
Volume108
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2008

Fingerprint

evidence
Inductive Reasoning
Typicality
induction
animal
present

Keywords

  • Development
  • Diversity
  • Inductive reasoning
  • Typicality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language

Cite this

Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning : Evidence for developmental change. / Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A.

In: Cognition, Vol. 108, No. 2, 08.2008, p. 543-556.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rhodes, Marjorie ; Brickman, Daniel ; Gelman, Susan A. / Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning : Evidence for developmental change. In: Cognition. 2008 ; Vol. 108, No. 2. pp. 543-556.
@article{34a75f256d004fc7a768fdfcab3ca64a,
title = "Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: Evidence for developmental change",
abstract = "Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N = 133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.",
keywords = "Development, Diversity, Inductive reasoning, Typicality",
author = "Marjorie Rhodes and Daniel Brickman and Gelman, {Susan A.}",
year = "2008",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.cognition.2008.03.002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "108",
pages = "543--556",
journal = "Cognition",
issn = "0010-0277",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning

T2 - Evidence for developmental change

AU - Rhodes, Marjorie

AU - Brickman, Daniel

AU - Gelman, Susan A.

PY - 2008/8

Y1 - 2008/8

N2 - Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N = 133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

AB - Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N = 133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

KW - Development

KW - Diversity

KW - Inductive reasoning

KW - Typicality

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=45649083706&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=45649083706&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.cognition.2008.03.002

DO - 10.1016/j.cognition.2008.03.002

M3 - Article

C2 - 18436200

AN - SCOPUS:45649083706

VL - 108

SP - 543

EP - 556

JO - Cognition

JF - Cognition

SN - 0010-0277

IS - 2

ER -