Saliva and inhibition of HIV-1 infection: Molecular mechanisms

Diane C. Shugars, S. P. Sweet, Daniel Malamud, S. H. Kazmi, K. Page-Shafer, S. J. Challacombe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Oral fluids are rarely a vehicle for HIV-1 infection in vivo, unlike other mucosal secretions. This unique property raises questions regarding (1) the molecular mechanisms responsible for the lack of salivary transmission, (2) the extent to which oral immunological responses mirror responses at other mucosal sites, (3) the use of promising salivary markers of HIV-1 disease progression, (4) the relationship between oral and blood viral loads, (5) cofactors that influence oro-genital transmission, and (6) the feasibility of oral-based antibody testing for HIV-1 diagnosis in the home. This paper discusses these questions and provides background summaries, findings from new studies, consensus opinions, practical relevance to developing countries, and suggestions for future research agenda on each of the key topics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-175
Number of pages7
JournalOral Diseases
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
Publication statusPublished - 2002



  • Antibody testing
  • Antiviral
  • HIV
  • Mucosal Immunity
  • Saliva
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Shugars, D. C., Sweet, S. P., Malamud, D., Kazmi, S. H., Page-Shafer, K., & Challacombe, S. J. (2002). Saliva and inhibition of HIV-1 infection: Molecular mechanisms. Oral Diseases, 8(SUPPL. 2), 169-175.