Role of Histidine-152 in cofactor orientation in the PLP-dependent O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase reaction

Chia Hui Tai, Wael Rabeh, Rong Guan, Klaus D. Schnackerz, Paul F. Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

O-Acetylserine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step of the biosynthesis of l-cysteine, the replacement of the β-acetoxy group of O-acetyl-l-serine (OAS) by a thiol. The 5′-phosphate of the PLP cofactor is very tightly bound to the enzyme; it accepts 8 hydrogen bonds from enzyme side chains and a pair of water molecules, and is in close proximity to a helix dipole. Histidine-152 (H152) is one of the residues that, via a water molecule, is responsible for positioning the 5′-phosphate. Mutation of H152 to alanine was predicted to increase the freedom of the 5′-phosphate, and as a result the cofactor, giving a decrease in the overall rate of the reaction. The H152A mutant enzyme was thus prepared and characterized by UV-visible absorbance, fluorescence, visible CD, and 31P NMR spectral studies, as well as steady state and pre-steady state kinetic studies. UV-visible absorbance and visible CD spectra are consistent with a shift in the ketoeneamine to enolimine tautomeric equilibrium toward the neutral enolimine in the internal Schiff base of the free enzyme (ISB), the amino acid external Schiff base (ESB), and the α-aminoacrylate intermediate (AA). 31P NMR spectra clearly indicate the presence of two conformers (presumably open and closed forms of the enzyme) that interconvert slowly on the NMR time scale in the ISB and ESB. Kinetic data suggest the decreased rate of the enzyme likely reflects a decrease in the amount of active enzyme as a result of an increased flexibility of the cofactor which results in substantial nonproductive binding of OAS in its external Schiff base, and a stabilization of the external Schiff bases of OAS and S-carboxynitrophenyl-l-cysteine. The nonproductive binding and stabilization of the external Schiff bases are thus linked to the shift in the tautomeric equilibrium and increase in the rate of interconversion of the open and closed forms of the enzyme. The location of the 5′-phosphate in the cofactor-binding site determines additional interactions between the cofactor and enzyme in the closed (ESB) form of the enzyme, consistent with an increased rate of interconversion of the open and closed forms of the enzyme upon increasing the rate of flexibility of the cofactor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-125
Number of pages11
JournalArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Volume472
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2008

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Cysteine Synthase
Histidine
Schiff Bases
Enzymes
Phosphates
Serine
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Cysteine
Stabilization
Molecules
Kinetics
Water
Biosynthesis
Coenzymes
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Alanine
Hydrogen
Hydrogen bonds

Keywords

  • P NMR
  • CD spectra
  • Fluorescence spectra
  • O-Acetylserine sulfhydrylase
  • Pyridixal 5′-phosphate
  • Site-directed mutagenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Role of Histidine-152 in cofactor orientation in the PLP-dependent O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase reaction. / Tai, Chia Hui; Rabeh, Wael; Guan, Rong; Schnackerz, Klaus D.; Cook, Paul F.

In: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 472, No. 2, 15.04.2008, p. 115-125.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tai, Chia Hui ; Rabeh, Wael ; Guan, Rong ; Schnackerz, Klaus D. ; Cook, Paul F. / Role of Histidine-152 in cofactor orientation in the PLP-dependent O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase reaction. In: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2008 ; Vol. 472, No. 2. pp. 115-125.
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AU - Cook, Paul F.

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N2 - O-Acetylserine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step of the biosynthesis of l-cysteine, the replacement of the β-acetoxy group of O-acetyl-l-serine (OAS) by a thiol. The 5′-phosphate of the PLP cofactor is very tightly bound to the enzyme; it accepts 8 hydrogen bonds from enzyme side chains and a pair of water molecules, and is in close proximity to a helix dipole. Histidine-152 (H152) is one of the residues that, via a water molecule, is responsible for positioning the 5′-phosphate. Mutation of H152 to alanine was predicted to increase the freedom of the 5′-phosphate, and as a result the cofactor, giving a decrease in the overall rate of the reaction. The H152A mutant enzyme was thus prepared and characterized by UV-visible absorbance, fluorescence, visible CD, and 31P NMR spectral studies, as well as steady state and pre-steady state kinetic studies. UV-visible absorbance and visible CD spectra are consistent with a shift in the ketoeneamine to enolimine tautomeric equilibrium toward the neutral enolimine in the internal Schiff base of the free enzyme (ISB), the amino acid external Schiff base (ESB), and the α-aminoacrylate intermediate (AA). 31P NMR spectra clearly indicate the presence of two conformers (presumably open and closed forms of the enzyme) that interconvert slowly on the NMR time scale in the ISB and ESB. Kinetic data suggest the decreased rate of the enzyme likely reflects a decrease in the amount of active enzyme as a result of an increased flexibility of the cofactor which results in substantial nonproductive binding of OAS in its external Schiff base, and a stabilization of the external Schiff bases of OAS and S-carboxynitrophenyl-l-cysteine. The nonproductive binding and stabilization of the external Schiff bases are thus linked to the shift in the tautomeric equilibrium and increase in the rate of interconversion of the open and closed forms of the enzyme. The location of the 5′-phosphate in the cofactor-binding site determines additional interactions between the cofactor and enzyme in the closed (ESB) form of the enzyme, consistent with an increased rate of interconversion of the open and closed forms of the enzyme upon increasing the rate of flexibility of the cofactor.

AB - O-Acetylserine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step of the biosynthesis of l-cysteine, the replacement of the β-acetoxy group of O-acetyl-l-serine (OAS) by a thiol. The 5′-phosphate of the PLP cofactor is very tightly bound to the enzyme; it accepts 8 hydrogen bonds from enzyme side chains and a pair of water molecules, and is in close proximity to a helix dipole. Histidine-152 (H152) is one of the residues that, via a water molecule, is responsible for positioning the 5′-phosphate. Mutation of H152 to alanine was predicted to increase the freedom of the 5′-phosphate, and as a result the cofactor, giving a decrease in the overall rate of the reaction. The H152A mutant enzyme was thus prepared and characterized by UV-visible absorbance, fluorescence, visible CD, and 31P NMR spectral studies, as well as steady state and pre-steady state kinetic studies. UV-visible absorbance and visible CD spectra are consistent with a shift in the ketoeneamine to enolimine tautomeric equilibrium toward the neutral enolimine in the internal Schiff base of the free enzyme (ISB), the amino acid external Schiff base (ESB), and the α-aminoacrylate intermediate (AA). 31P NMR spectra clearly indicate the presence of two conformers (presumably open and closed forms of the enzyme) that interconvert slowly on the NMR time scale in the ISB and ESB. Kinetic data suggest the decreased rate of the enzyme likely reflects a decrease in the amount of active enzyme as a result of an increased flexibility of the cofactor which results in substantial nonproductive binding of OAS in its external Schiff base, and a stabilization of the external Schiff bases of OAS and S-carboxynitrophenyl-l-cysteine. The nonproductive binding and stabilization of the external Schiff bases are thus linked to the shift in the tautomeric equilibrium and increase in the rate of interconversion of the open and closed forms of the enzyme. The location of the 5′-phosphate in the cofactor-binding site determines additional interactions between the cofactor and enzyme in the closed (ESB) form of the enzyme, consistent with an increased rate of interconversion of the open and closed forms of the enzyme upon increasing the rate of flexibility of the cofactor.

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