Rodent doxapram model of panic: Behavioral effects and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala

Gregory M. Sullivan, John Apergis, Jack M. Gorman, Joseph Ledoux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Panic attacks, the hallmark of panic disorder, are often characterized by hyperventilation. Existing animal models of anxiety have not addressed the effects of the hyperventilation on anxiety-related behaviors. Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant that reliably evokes panic attacks in patients with panic disorder. We examined doxapram in four rodent models of anxiety and sought to identify brain regions involved in its behavioral effects. Methods: The effects of doxapram were determined for cue and contextual fear conditioning, the open field test, and the social interaction test. The effect of doxapram on c-Fos-like immunoreactivity was examined in three brain regions. Results: Doxapram at 4 mg/kg increased anxiety-related behaviors in all four anxiety models. An inverted U-shaped dose-response curve was identified for fear conditioning to cue. Doxapram induced c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala but not the lateral nucleus or the nucleus tractus solitarius. Conclusions: Doxapram enhanced anxiety-related behaviors in four animal models of anxiety that involve conditioning or spontaneous avoidance. The effect of doxapram may result from activation of neurons in the amygdala. Doxapram, by inducing hyperventilation, may be a useful adjunct to existing animal anxiety models for improving validity for panic anxiety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)863-870
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Volume53
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2003

Fingerprint

Doxapram
Panic
Amygdala
Rodentia
Anxiety
Panic Disorder
Hyperventilation
Animal Models
Fear
Cues
Respiratory System Agents
Solitary Nucleus
Brain
Interpersonal Relations

Keywords

  • Amygdala
  • c-Fos
  • Doxapram
  • Fear conditioning
  • Open field
  • Social interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

Cite this

Rodent doxapram model of panic : Behavioral effects and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala. / Sullivan, Gregory M.; Apergis, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Ledoux, Joseph.

In: Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 53, No. 10, 15.05.2003, p. 863-870.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sullivan, Gregory M. ; Apergis, John ; Gorman, Jack M. ; Ledoux, Joseph. / Rodent doxapram model of panic : Behavioral effects and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala. In: Biological Psychiatry. 2003 ; Vol. 53, No. 10. pp. 863-870.
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