Repair and regeneration in endodontics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The ideal objective of treatment of established diseases, including irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis, is to achieve wound healing. Wound healing can result in repair or regeneration. The ultimate goal of wound healing is to restore the original architecture and biological function of the injured tissue or organ. Although humans are equipped with powerful innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect wound healing. Complete regeneration following injury in humans can occur only in the pre-natal foetus within 24weeks of gestation. Post-natal wounds including irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis always heal by repair or by a combination of repair and regeneration. Somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts and osteoblasts, in the pulp and periapical tissues have limited potential for regeneration following injury and lack of telomerase. Wound healing of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis requires recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into tissue-committed somatic cells. Stem cell differentiation is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic micro-environmental cues. Functionality of stem cells appears to show an age-related decline because of the change in intrinsic properties and diminished signals within the extrinsic local and systemic environment that modulate the function of stem cells or their progeny. Infection induces an immuno-inflammatory response and tissue destruction, which hinders the potential of tissue regeneration. Therefore, prevention, early detection and treatment of inflammation/infection of pulpal and periapical disease can enhance regeneration and minimize the repair of pulpal and periapical tissues after endodontic therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)889-906
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Volume44
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011

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Endodontics
Regeneration
Wound Healing
Pulpitis
Periapical Periodontitis
Stem Cells
Periapical Tissue
Intrinsic Factor
Periapical Diseases
Wounds and Injuries
Dental Cementum
Telomerase
Defense Mechanisms
Infection
Osteoblasts
Cues
Cell Differentiation
Fetus
Fibroblasts
Macrophages

Keywords

  • Nonvital pulp therapy
  • Post-natal wound healing
  • Pre-natal wound healing
  • Progenitor/stem cells
  • Vital pulp therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Repair and regeneration in endodontics. / Lin, Louis; Rosenberg, Paul.

In: International Endodontic Journal, Vol. 44, No. 10, 10.2011, p. 889-906.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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