Removing krypton from xenon by cryogenic distillation to the ppq level

XENON Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The XENON1T experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter in a detector filled with 3.3 tons of liquid xenon. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the background induced by radioactive decays inside the detector has to be sufficiently low. One major contributor is the β-emitter 85Kr which is present in the xenon. For XENON1T a concentration of natural krypton in xenon natKr/Xe<200ppq (parts per quadrillion, 1ppq=10-15mol/mol) is required. In this work, the design, construction and test of a novel cryogenic distillation column using the common McCabe–Thiele approach is described. The system demonstrated a krypton reduction factor of 6.4 · 10 5 with thermodynamic stability at process speeds above 3 kg/h. The resulting concentration of natKr/Xe<26ppq is the lowest ever achieved, almost one order of magnitude below the requirements for XENON1T and even sufficient for future dark matter experiments using liquid xenon, such as XENONnT and DARWIN.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number275
JournalEuropean Physical Journal C
Volume77
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

Fingerprint

Krypton
distillation
Xenon
krypton
Distillation
Cryogenics
xenon
cryogenics
dark matter
Detectors
radioactive decay
detectors
Distillation columns
Liquids
liquids
emitters
Thermodynamic stability
Experiments
thermodynamics
requirements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Removing krypton from xenon by cryogenic distillation to the ppq level. / XENON Collaboration.

In: European Physical Journal C, Vol. 77, No. 5, 275, 01.05.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{293d57a8a67b45b4bd1285b40a297a67,
title = "Removing krypton from xenon by cryogenic distillation to the ppq level",
abstract = "The XENON1T experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter in a detector filled with 3.3 tons of liquid xenon. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the background induced by radioactive decays inside the detector has to be sufficiently low. One major contributor is the β-emitter 85Kr which is present in the xenon. For XENON1T a concentration of natural krypton in xenon natKr/Xe<200ppq (parts per quadrillion, 1ppq=10-15mol/mol) is required. In this work, the design, construction and test of a novel cryogenic distillation column using the common McCabe–Thiele approach is described. The system demonstrated a krypton reduction factor of 6.4 · 10 5 with thermodynamic stability at process speeds above 3 kg/h. The resulting concentration of natKr/Xe<26ppq is the lowest ever achieved, almost one order of magnitude below the requirements for XENON1T and even sufficient for future dark matter experiments using liquid xenon, such as XENONnT and DARWIN.",
author = "{XENON Collaboration} and E. Aprile and J. Aalbers and F. Agostini and M. Alfonsi and Amaro, {F. D.} and M. Anthony and Francesco Arneodo and P. Barrow and L. Baudis and B. Bauermeister and {Lotfi Benabderrhmane}, Mohamed and T. Berger and Breur, {P. A.} and A. Brown and E. Brown and S. Bruenner and G. Bruno and R. Budnik and L. B{\"u}tikofer and J. Calv{\'e}n and Cardoso, {J. M.R.} and M. Cervantes and D. Cichon and D. Coderre and Colijn, {A. P.} and J. Conrad and Cussonneau, {J. P.} and Decowski, {M. P.} and Perio, {P. de} and Gangi, {P. Di} and Giovanni, {A. Di} and S. Diglio and E. Duchovni and G. Eurin and J. Fei and Ferella, {A. D.} and A. Fieguth and D. Franco and W. Fulgione and {Gallo Rosso}, A. and M. Galloway and F. Gao and M. Garbini and C. Geis and Goetzke, {L. W.} and L. Grandi and Z. Greene and C. Grignon and C. Hasterok and E. Hogenbirk",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4757-1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "77",
journal = "European Physical Journal C",
issn = "1434-6044",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Removing krypton from xenon by cryogenic distillation to the ppq level

AU - XENON Collaboration

AU - Aprile, E.

AU - Aalbers, J.

AU - Agostini, F.

AU - Alfonsi, M.

AU - Amaro, F. D.

AU - Anthony, M.

AU - Arneodo, Francesco

AU - Barrow, P.

AU - Baudis, L.

AU - Bauermeister, B.

AU - Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed

AU - Berger, T.

AU - Breur, P. A.

AU - Brown, A.

AU - Brown, E.

AU - Bruenner, S.

AU - Bruno, G.

AU - Budnik, R.

AU - Bütikofer, L.

AU - Calvén, J.

AU - Cardoso, J. M.R.

AU - Cervantes, M.

AU - Cichon, D.

AU - Coderre, D.

AU - Colijn, A. P.

AU - Conrad, J.

AU - Cussonneau, J. P.

AU - Decowski, M. P.

AU - Perio, P. de

AU - Gangi, P. Di

AU - Giovanni, A. Di

AU - Diglio, S.

AU - Duchovni, E.

AU - Eurin, G.

AU - Fei, J.

AU - Ferella, A. D.

AU - Fieguth, A.

AU - Franco, D.

AU - Fulgione, W.

AU - Gallo Rosso, A.

AU - Galloway, M.

AU - Gao, F.

AU - Garbini, M.

AU - Geis, C.

AU - Goetzke, L. W.

AU - Grandi, L.

AU - Greene, Z.

AU - Grignon, C.

AU - Hasterok, C.

AU - Hogenbirk, E.

PY - 2017/5/1

Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - The XENON1T experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter in a detector filled with 3.3 tons of liquid xenon. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the background induced by radioactive decays inside the detector has to be sufficiently low. One major contributor is the β-emitter 85Kr which is present in the xenon. For XENON1T a concentration of natural krypton in xenon natKr/Xe<200ppq (parts per quadrillion, 1ppq=10-15mol/mol) is required. In this work, the design, construction and test of a novel cryogenic distillation column using the common McCabe–Thiele approach is described. The system demonstrated a krypton reduction factor of 6.4 · 10 5 with thermodynamic stability at process speeds above 3 kg/h. The resulting concentration of natKr/Xe<26ppq is the lowest ever achieved, almost one order of magnitude below the requirements for XENON1T and even sufficient for future dark matter experiments using liquid xenon, such as XENONnT and DARWIN.

AB - The XENON1T experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter in a detector filled with 3.3 tons of liquid xenon. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the background induced by radioactive decays inside the detector has to be sufficiently low. One major contributor is the β-emitter 85Kr which is present in the xenon. For XENON1T a concentration of natural krypton in xenon natKr/Xe<200ppq (parts per quadrillion, 1ppq=10-15mol/mol) is required. In this work, the design, construction and test of a novel cryogenic distillation column using the common McCabe–Thiele approach is described. The system demonstrated a krypton reduction factor of 6.4 · 10 5 with thermodynamic stability at process speeds above 3 kg/h. The resulting concentration of natKr/Xe<26ppq is the lowest ever achieved, almost one order of magnitude below the requirements for XENON1T and even sufficient for future dark matter experiments using liquid xenon, such as XENONnT and DARWIN.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85018786375&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85018786375&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4757-1

DO - 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4757-1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85018786375

VL - 77

JO - European Physical Journal C

JF - European Physical Journal C

SN - 1434-6044

IS - 5

M1 - 275

ER -