Regeneration of a Pediatric Alveolar Cleft Model Using Three-Dimensionally Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds and Osteogenic Agents: Comparison of Dipyridamole and rhBMP-2

Christopher D. Lopez, Paulo Coelho, Lukasz Witek, Andrea Torroni, Michael I. Greenberg, Dean L. Cuadrado, Audrey M. Guarino, Jonathan M. Bekisz, Bruce N. Cronstein, Roberto L. Flores

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Alveolar clefts are traditionally treated with secondary bone grafting, but this is associated with morbidity and graft resorption. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is under investigation for alveolar cleft repair, safety concerns remain. Dipyridamole is an adenosine receptor indirect agonist with known osteogenic potential. This study compared dipyridamole to rhBMP-2 at alveolar cleft defects delivered using bioceramic scaffolds. METHODS: Skeletally immature New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral, 3.5 × 3.5-mm alveolar resection adjacent to the growing suture. Five served as negative controls. The remaining defects were reconstructed with three-dimensionally printed bioceramic scaffolds coated with 1000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 6), 10,000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 7), or 0.2 mg/ml of rhBMP-2 (n = 5). At 8 weeks, new bone was quantified. Nondecalcified histologic evaluation was performed, and new bone was evaluated mechanically. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: Negative controls did not heal, whereas new bone formation bridged all three-dimensionally printed bioceramic treatment groups. The 1000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 28.03 ± 7.38 percent, 10,000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 36.18 ± 6.83 percent (1000 μm versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole; p = 0.104), and rhBMP-2-coated scaffolds regenerated 37.17 ± 16.69 percent bone (p = 0.124 versus 1000 μm dipyridamole, and p = 0.938 versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole). On histology/electron microscopy, no changes in suture biology were evident for dipyridamole, whereas rhBMP-2 demonstrated early signs of suture fusion. Healing was highly cellular and vascularized across all groups. No statistical differences in mechanical properties were observed between either dipyridamole or rhBMP-2 compared with native bone. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole generates new bone without osteolysis and early suture fusion associated with rhBMP-2 in skeletally immature bone defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)358-370
Number of pages13
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Volume144
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

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Dipyridamole
Regeneration
Pediatrics
Bone and Bones
Sutures
Nonparametric Statistics
recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2
Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists
Osteolysis
Bone Transplantation
Osteogenesis
Linear Models
Histology
Electron Microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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Regeneration of a Pediatric Alveolar Cleft Model Using Three-Dimensionally Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds and Osteogenic Agents : Comparison of Dipyridamole and rhBMP-2. / Lopez, Christopher D.; Coelho, Paulo; Witek, Lukasz; Torroni, Andrea; Greenberg, Michael I.; Cuadrado, Dean L.; Guarino, Audrey M.; Bekisz, Jonathan M.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Flores, Roberto L.

In: Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Vol. 144, No. 2, 01.08.2019, p. 358-370.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lopez, Christopher D. ; Coelho, Paulo ; Witek, Lukasz ; Torroni, Andrea ; Greenberg, Michael I. ; Cuadrado, Dean L. ; Guarino, Audrey M. ; Bekisz, Jonathan M. ; Cronstein, Bruce N. ; Flores, Roberto L. / Regeneration of a Pediatric Alveolar Cleft Model Using Three-Dimensionally Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds and Osteogenic Agents : Comparison of Dipyridamole and rhBMP-2. In: Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2019 ; Vol. 144, No. 2. pp. 358-370.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Alveolar clefts are traditionally treated with secondary bone grafting, but this is associated with morbidity and graft resorption. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is under investigation for alveolar cleft repair, safety concerns remain. Dipyridamole is an adenosine receptor indirect agonist with known osteogenic potential. This study compared dipyridamole to rhBMP-2 at alveolar cleft defects delivered using bioceramic scaffolds. METHODS: Skeletally immature New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral, 3.5 × 3.5-mm alveolar resection adjacent to the growing suture. Five served as negative controls. The remaining defects were reconstructed with three-dimensionally printed bioceramic scaffolds coated with 1000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 6), 10,000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 7), or 0.2 mg/ml of rhBMP-2 (n = 5). At 8 weeks, new bone was quantified. Nondecalcified histologic evaluation was performed, and new bone was evaluated mechanically. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: Negative controls did not heal, whereas new bone formation bridged all three-dimensionally printed bioceramic treatment groups. The 1000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 28.03 ± 7.38 percent, 10,000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 36.18 ± 6.83 percent (1000 μm versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole; p = 0.104), and rhBMP-2-coated scaffolds regenerated 37.17 ± 16.69 percent bone (p = 0.124 versus 1000 μm dipyridamole, and p = 0.938 versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole). On histology/electron microscopy, no changes in suture biology were evident for dipyridamole, whereas rhBMP-2 demonstrated early signs of suture fusion. Healing was highly cellular and vascularized across all groups. No statistical differences in mechanical properties were observed between either dipyridamole or rhBMP-2 compared with native bone. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole generates new bone without osteolysis and early suture fusion associated with rhBMP-2 in skeletally immature bone defects.",
author = "Lopez, {Christopher D.} and Paulo Coelho and Lukasz Witek and Andrea Torroni and Greenberg, {Michael I.} and Cuadrado, {Dean L.} and Guarino, {Audrey M.} and Bekisz, {Jonathan M.} and Cronstein, {Bruce N.} and Flores, {Roberto L.}",
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T2 - Comparison of Dipyridamole and rhBMP-2

AU - Lopez, Christopher D.

AU - Coelho, Paulo

AU - Witek, Lukasz

AU - Torroni, Andrea

AU - Greenberg, Michael I.

AU - Cuadrado, Dean L.

AU - Guarino, Audrey M.

AU - Bekisz, Jonathan M.

AU - Cronstein, Bruce N.

AU - Flores, Roberto L.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Alveolar clefts are traditionally treated with secondary bone grafting, but this is associated with morbidity and graft resorption. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is under investigation for alveolar cleft repair, safety concerns remain. Dipyridamole is an adenosine receptor indirect agonist with known osteogenic potential. This study compared dipyridamole to rhBMP-2 at alveolar cleft defects delivered using bioceramic scaffolds. METHODS: Skeletally immature New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral, 3.5 × 3.5-mm alveolar resection adjacent to the growing suture. Five served as negative controls. The remaining defects were reconstructed with three-dimensionally printed bioceramic scaffolds coated with 1000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 6), 10,000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 7), or 0.2 mg/ml of rhBMP-2 (n = 5). At 8 weeks, new bone was quantified. Nondecalcified histologic evaluation was performed, and new bone was evaluated mechanically. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: Negative controls did not heal, whereas new bone formation bridged all three-dimensionally printed bioceramic treatment groups. The 1000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 28.03 ± 7.38 percent, 10,000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 36.18 ± 6.83 percent (1000 μm versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole; p = 0.104), and rhBMP-2-coated scaffolds regenerated 37.17 ± 16.69 percent bone (p = 0.124 versus 1000 μm dipyridamole, and p = 0.938 versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole). On histology/electron microscopy, no changes in suture biology were evident for dipyridamole, whereas rhBMP-2 demonstrated early signs of suture fusion. Healing was highly cellular and vascularized across all groups. No statistical differences in mechanical properties were observed between either dipyridamole or rhBMP-2 compared with native bone. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole generates new bone without osteolysis and early suture fusion associated with rhBMP-2 in skeletally immature bone defects.

AB - BACKGROUND: Alveolar clefts are traditionally treated with secondary bone grafting, but this is associated with morbidity and graft resorption. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is under investigation for alveolar cleft repair, safety concerns remain. Dipyridamole is an adenosine receptor indirect agonist with known osteogenic potential. This study compared dipyridamole to rhBMP-2 at alveolar cleft defects delivered using bioceramic scaffolds. METHODS: Skeletally immature New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral, 3.5 × 3.5-mm alveolar resection adjacent to the growing suture. Five served as negative controls. The remaining defects were reconstructed with three-dimensionally printed bioceramic scaffolds coated with 1000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 6), 10,000 μm of dipyridamole (n = 7), or 0.2 mg/ml of rhBMP-2 (n = 5). At 8 weeks, new bone was quantified. Nondecalcified histologic evaluation was performed, and new bone was evaluated mechanically. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model and the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: Negative controls did not heal, whereas new bone formation bridged all three-dimensionally printed bioceramic treatment groups. The 1000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 28.03 ± 7.38 percent, 10,000-μm dipyridamole scaffolds regenerated 36.18 ± 6.83 percent (1000 μm versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole; p = 0.104), and rhBMP-2-coated scaffolds regenerated 37.17 ± 16.69 percent bone (p = 0.124 versus 1000 μm dipyridamole, and p = 0.938 versus 10,000 μm dipyridamole). On histology/electron microscopy, no changes in suture biology were evident for dipyridamole, whereas rhBMP-2 demonstrated early signs of suture fusion. Healing was highly cellular and vascularized across all groups. No statistical differences in mechanical properties were observed between either dipyridamole or rhBMP-2 compared with native bone. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole generates new bone without osteolysis and early suture fusion associated with rhBMP-2 in skeletally immature bone defects.

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