Reductions in national cardiometabolic mortality achievable by food price changes according to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and participation

Parke Edward Wilde, Zach Conrad, Colin D. Rehm, Jennifer Pomeranz, Jose L. Penalvo, Frederick Cudhea, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Martin O'Flaherty, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Suboptimal diets are a major contributor to cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality, and substantial disparities exist for both dietary quality and mortality risk across income groups in the USA. Research is needed to quantify how food pricing policies to subsidise healthy foods and tax unhealthy foods could affect the US CMD mortality, overall and by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and participation. Methods: Comparative risk analysis based on national data on diet (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012) and mortality (mortality-linked National Health Interview Survey) and meta-analyses of policy-diet and diet-disease relationships. Results: A national 10% price reduction on fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains was estimated to prevent 19 600 CMD deaths/year, including 2.6% (95% UI 2.4% to 2.8%) of all CMD deaths among SNAP participants, 2.7% (95% UI 2.4% to 3.0%) among SNAP-eligible non-participants and 2.6% (95% UI 2.4% to 2.8%) among SNAP-ineligible non-participants. Adding a national 10% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and processed meats would prevent a total of 33 700 CMD deaths/year, including 5.9% (95% UI 5.4% to 7.4%) of all CMD deaths among SNAP participants, 4.8% (95% UI 4.4% to 5.2%) among SNAP-eligible non-participants and 4.1% (95% UI 3.8% to 4.5%) among SNAP-ineligible non-participants. Adding a SNAP-targeted 30% subsidy for the same healthy foods would offer the largest reductions in both CMD mortality and disparities. Conclusion: National subsidies for healthy foods and taxes on SSBs and processed meats would each reduce CMD mortality; taxes would also reduce CMD mortality more steeply for SNAP participants than for non-participants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - May 10 2018

Fingerprint

Food Assistance
Food
Mortality
Diet
Taxes
Beverages
Meat
Nutrition Policy
Nuts
Nutrition Surveys
Health Surveys
Vegetables
Meta-Analysis
Fruit

Keywords

  • cardiovascular disease
  • cost effective
  • modelling
  • nutrition
  • poverty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Reductions in national cardiometabolic mortality achievable by food price changes according to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and participation. / Wilde, Parke Edward; Conrad, Zach; Rehm, Colin D.; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Penalvo, Jose L.; Cudhea, Frederick; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; O'Flaherty, Martin; Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush.

In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 10.05.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wilde, Parke Edward ; Conrad, Zach ; Rehm, Colin D. ; Pomeranz, Jennifer ; Penalvo, Jose L. ; Cudhea, Frederick ; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan ; O'Flaherty, Martin ; Micha, Renata ; Mozaffarian, Dariush. / Reductions in national cardiometabolic mortality achievable by food price changes according to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and participation. In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2018.
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AU - Wilde, Parke Edward

AU - Conrad, Zach

AU - Rehm, Colin D.

AU - Pomeranz, Jennifer

AU - Penalvo, Jose L.

AU - Cudhea, Frederick

AU - Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan

AU - O'Flaherty, Martin

AU - Micha, Renata

AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush

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AB - Background: Suboptimal diets are a major contributor to cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality, and substantial disparities exist for both dietary quality and mortality risk across income groups in the USA. Research is needed to quantify how food pricing policies to subsidise healthy foods and tax unhealthy foods could affect the US CMD mortality, overall and by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and participation. Methods: Comparative risk analysis based on national data on diet (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012) and mortality (mortality-linked National Health Interview Survey) and meta-analyses of policy-diet and diet-disease relationships. Results: A national 10% price reduction on fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains was estimated to prevent 19 600 CMD deaths/year, including 2.6% (95% UI 2.4% to 2.8%) of all CMD deaths among SNAP participants, 2.7% (95% UI 2.4% to 3.0%) among SNAP-eligible non-participants and 2.6% (95% UI 2.4% to 2.8%) among SNAP-ineligible non-participants. Adding a national 10% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and processed meats would prevent a total of 33 700 CMD deaths/year, including 5.9% (95% UI 5.4% to 7.4%) of all CMD deaths among SNAP participants, 4.8% (95% UI 4.4% to 5.2%) among SNAP-eligible non-participants and 4.1% (95% UI 3.8% to 4.5%) among SNAP-ineligible non-participants. Adding a SNAP-targeted 30% subsidy for the same healthy foods would offer the largest reductions in both CMD mortality and disparities. Conclusion: National subsidies for healthy foods and taxes on SSBs and processed meats would each reduce CMD mortality; taxes would also reduce CMD mortality more steeply for SNAP participants than for non-participants.

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