IGF-I and insulin are structurally related polypeptides that mediate a similar pattern of biological effects via receptors that display considerably homology. Administration of recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) has been proven to improve glucose control and liver and muscle insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The effect of rhIGF-I treatment was evaluated in a mouse model of type 2 DM (MKR mouse), which expresses a dominant-negative form of the human IGF-I receptor under the control of the muscle creatine kinase promoter specifically in skeletal muscle. MKR mice have impaired IGF-I and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, leading to severe insulin resistance in muscle, liver, and fat, developing type 2 DM at 5 wk of age. Six-week-old MKR mice were treated with either saline or rhIGF-I for 3 wk. Blood glucose levels were decreased in response to rhIGF-I treatment in MKR mice. rhIGF-I treatment also increased body weight in MKR with concomitant changes in body composition such as a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean body mass. Insulin, fatty acid, and triglyceride levels were not affected by rhIGF-I, nor were insulin or glucose tolerance in MKR mice. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis demonstrated no improvement in overall insulin sensitivity. Pyruvate and glutamine tolerance tests proved that there was a decrease in the rate of glucose appearance in MKR mice treated with rhIGF-I, suggesting a reduction in the gluconeogenic capacity of liver, kidney, and small intestine. Taken together these results demonstrate that the improvement of the hyperglycemia was achieved by inhibition of gluconeogenesis rather than an improvement in insulin sensitivity. Also, these results suggest that a functional IGF-I receptor in skeletal muscle is required for IGF-I to improve insulin sensitivity in this mouse model of type 2 DM.
ASJC Scopus subject areas