Re-evaluating dissociations between implicit and explicit category learning: An event-related fMRI study

Todd Gureckis, Thomas W. James, Robert M. Nosofsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Recent fMRI studies have found that distinct neural systems may mediate perceptual category learning under implicit and explicit learning conditions. In these previous studies, however, different stimulus-encoding processes may have been associated with implicit versus explicit learning. The present design was aimed at decoupling the influence of these factors on the recruitment of alternate neural systems. Consistent with previous reports, following incidental learning in a dot-pattern classification task, participants showed decreased neural activity in occipital visual cortex (extrastriate region V3, BA 19) in response to novel exemplars of a studied category compared to members of a foil category, but did not show this decreased neural activity following explicit learning. Crucially, however, our results show that this pattern was primarily modulated by aspects of the stimulus-encoding instructions provided at the time of study. In particular, when participants in an implicit learning condition were encouraged to evaluate the overall shape and configuration of the stimuli during study, we failed to find the pattern of brain activity that has been taken to be a signature of implicit learning, suggesting that activity in this area does not uniquely reflect implicit memory for perceptual categories but instead may reflect aspects of processing or perceptual encoding strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1697-1709
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Volume23
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011

Fingerprint

Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Learning
Occipital Lobe
Time and Motion Studies
Visual Cortex
Brain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience

Cite this

Re-evaluating dissociations between implicit and explicit category learning : An event-related fMRI study. / Gureckis, Todd; James, Thomas W.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 23, No. 7, 07.2011, p. 1697-1709.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gureckis, Todd ; James, Thomas W. ; Nosofsky, Robert M. / Re-evaluating dissociations between implicit and explicit category learning : An event-related fMRI study. In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2011 ; Vol. 23, No. 7. pp. 1697-1709.
@article{2d71bc4865674678b25556b3da44bbf2,
title = "Re-evaluating dissociations between implicit and explicit category learning: An event-related fMRI study",
abstract = "Recent fMRI studies have found that distinct neural systems may mediate perceptual category learning under implicit and explicit learning conditions. In these previous studies, however, different stimulus-encoding processes may have been associated with implicit versus explicit learning. The present design was aimed at decoupling the influence of these factors on the recruitment of alternate neural systems. Consistent with previous reports, following incidental learning in a dot-pattern classification task, participants showed decreased neural activity in occipital visual cortex (extrastriate region V3, BA 19) in response to novel exemplars of a studied category compared to members of a foil category, but did not show this decreased neural activity following explicit learning. Crucially, however, our results show that this pattern was primarily modulated by aspects of the stimulus-encoding instructions provided at the time of study. In particular, when participants in an implicit learning condition were encouraged to evaluate the overall shape and configuration of the stimuli during study, we failed to find the pattern of brain activity that has been taken to be a signature of implicit learning, suggesting that activity in this area does not uniquely reflect implicit memory for perceptual categories but instead may reflect aspects of processing or perceptual encoding strategies.",
author = "Todd Gureckis and James, {Thomas W.} and Nosofsky, {Robert M.}",
year = "2011",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1162/jocn.2010.21538",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "1697--1709",
journal = "Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience",
issn = "0898-929X",
publisher = "MIT Press Journals",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Re-evaluating dissociations between implicit and explicit category learning

T2 - An event-related fMRI study

AU - Gureckis, Todd

AU - James, Thomas W.

AU - Nosofsky, Robert M.

PY - 2011/7

Y1 - 2011/7

N2 - Recent fMRI studies have found that distinct neural systems may mediate perceptual category learning under implicit and explicit learning conditions. In these previous studies, however, different stimulus-encoding processes may have been associated with implicit versus explicit learning. The present design was aimed at decoupling the influence of these factors on the recruitment of alternate neural systems. Consistent with previous reports, following incidental learning in a dot-pattern classification task, participants showed decreased neural activity in occipital visual cortex (extrastriate region V3, BA 19) in response to novel exemplars of a studied category compared to members of a foil category, but did not show this decreased neural activity following explicit learning. Crucially, however, our results show that this pattern was primarily modulated by aspects of the stimulus-encoding instructions provided at the time of study. In particular, when participants in an implicit learning condition were encouraged to evaluate the overall shape and configuration of the stimuli during study, we failed to find the pattern of brain activity that has been taken to be a signature of implicit learning, suggesting that activity in this area does not uniquely reflect implicit memory for perceptual categories but instead may reflect aspects of processing or perceptual encoding strategies.

AB - Recent fMRI studies have found that distinct neural systems may mediate perceptual category learning under implicit and explicit learning conditions. In these previous studies, however, different stimulus-encoding processes may have been associated with implicit versus explicit learning. The present design was aimed at decoupling the influence of these factors on the recruitment of alternate neural systems. Consistent with previous reports, following incidental learning in a dot-pattern classification task, participants showed decreased neural activity in occipital visual cortex (extrastriate region V3, BA 19) in response to novel exemplars of a studied category compared to members of a foil category, but did not show this decreased neural activity following explicit learning. Crucially, however, our results show that this pattern was primarily modulated by aspects of the stimulus-encoding instructions provided at the time of study. In particular, when participants in an implicit learning condition were encouraged to evaluate the overall shape and configuration of the stimuli during study, we failed to find the pattern of brain activity that has been taken to be a signature of implicit learning, suggesting that activity in this area does not uniquely reflect implicit memory for perceptual categories but instead may reflect aspects of processing or perceptual encoding strategies.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79955826362&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79955826362&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1162/jocn.2010.21538

DO - 10.1162/jocn.2010.21538

M3 - Article

C2 - 20684660

AN - SCOPUS:79955826362

VL - 23

SP - 1697

EP - 1709

JO - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

JF - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

SN - 0898-929X

IS - 7

ER -