Purpose: To compare standard diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging and diffusion kurtosis (DK) imaging for prostate cancer (PC) detection and characterization in a large patient cohort, with attention to the potential added value of DK imaging. Materials and Methods: This retrospective institutional review board-approved study received a waiver of informed consent. Two hundred eighty-five patients with PC underwent 3.0-T phased-array coil prostate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including a DK imaging sequence (b values 0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 sec/mm2) before prostatectomy. Maps of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusional kurtosis (K) were derived by using maximal b values of 1000 and 2000 sec/mm2, respectively. Mean ADC and K were obtained from volumes of interest (VOIs) placed on each patient's dominant tumor and benign prostate tissue. Metrics were compared between benign and malignant tissue, between Gleason score (GS) ≤ 3 + 3 and GS ≥ 3 + 4 tumors, and between GS ≤ 3 + 4 and GS ≥ 4 + 3 tumors by using paired t tests, analysis of variance, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and exact tests. Results: ADC and K showed significant differences for benign versus tumor tissues, GS ≤ 3 + 3 versus GS ≥ 3 + 4 tumors, and GS ≤ 3 + 4 versus GS ≥ 4 + 3 tumors (P < .001 for all). ADC and K were highly correlated (r = 20.82; P < .001). Area under the ROC curve was significantly higher (P = .002) for ADC (0.921) than for K (0.902) for benign versus malignant tissue but was similar for GS ≤ 3 + 3 versus GS ≥ 3 + 4 tumors (0.715-0.744) and GS ≤ 3 + 4 versus GS ≥ 4 + 3 tumors (0.694-0.720) (P > .15). ADC and K were concordant for these various outcomes in 80.0%-88.6% of patients; among patients with discordant results, ADC showed better performance than K for GS ≤ 3 + 4 versus GS ≥ 4 + 3 tumors (P = .016) and was similar to K for other outcomes (P > .136). Conclusion: ADC and K were highly correlated, had similar diagnostic performance, and were concordant for the various outcomes in the large majority of cases. These observations did not show a clear added value of DK imaging compared with standard DW imaging for clinical PC evaluation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging