Profiles of service utilization and the resultant economic impact in preschoolers with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

David J. Marks, Agnieszka Mlodnicka, Melissa Bernstein, Anil Chacko, Scott Rose, Jeffrey M. Halperin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


OBJECTIVE: To examine whether preschool children with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize more speech and language therapy (ST), occupational therapy (OT), and physical therapy (PT) services and are more likely to be placed in special education (SPED) classrooms as compared to their peers. Corresponding financial consequences were also examined. METHODS: The amount of ST, OT, and PT, as well as SPED placements, was examined in 3- and 4-year-old children with and without ADHD (n = 109 and n = 97, respectively) during the baseline portion of an ongoing, 5-year longitudinal study. Costs for individual services and aggregate cost were determined per child and compared across groups. RESULTS: Preschool children with ADHD were more likely to receive individual and multiple services. Higher rates of service utilization translated into increased costs for each individual service with the exception of PT. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive understanding of service utilization in the early years of development is important in addressing the increased service use in the preschool years and assist in guiding allocation of resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)681-689
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 2009


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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