Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999

Scott S. Santibanez, Richard S. Garfein, Andrea Swartzendruber, Peter R. Kerndt, Edward Morse, Danielle Ompad, Steffanie Strathdee, Ian T. Williams, Samuel R. Friedman, Lawrence J. Ouellet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: We estimated prevalence and identified correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the second Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study (CIDUS II), a 1997-1999 cohort study of 18-30-year-old, street-recruited injection drug users from six US cities. Results: Crack-cocaine injection was reported by 329 (15%) of 2198 participants. Prevalence varied considerably by site (range, 1.5-28.0%). No participants injected only crack-cocaine. At four sites where crack-cocaine injection prevalence was greater than 10%, recent (past 6 months) crack-cocaine injection was correlated with recent daily injection and sharing of syringes, equipment, and drug solution. Lifetime crack-cocaine injection was correlated with using shooting galleries, initiating others into drug injection, and having serologic evidence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Conclusions: Crack-cocaine injection may be a marker for high-risk behaviors that can be used to direct efforts to prevent HIV and other blood-borne viral infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-233
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume77
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 7 2005

Fingerprint

Crack Cocaine
Drug Users
drug
Injections
Pharmaceutical Preparations
contagious disease
Viruses
risk behavior
Virus Diseases
Syringes
Needle Sharing
Blood
Risk-Taking
evidence
Hepatitis B virus
Hepacivirus
Cohort Studies

Keywords

  • Drugs
  • Epidemiology
  • Hepatitis
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Substance abuse
  • Urban health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Toxicology
  • Health(social science)

Cite this

Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999. / Santibanez, Scott S.; Garfein, Richard S.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Kerndt, Peter R.; Morse, Edward; Ompad, Danielle; Strathdee, Steffanie; Williams, Ian T.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Ouellet, Lawrence J.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 77, No. 3, 07.03.2005, p. 227-233.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Santibanez, SS, Garfein, RS, Swartzendruber, A, Kerndt, PR, Morse, E, Ompad, D, Strathdee, S, Williams, IT, Friedman, SR & Ouellet, LJ 2005, 'Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999', Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 227-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.08.020
Santibanez, Scott S. ; Garfein, Richard S. ; Swartzendruber, Andrea ; Kerndt, Peter R. ; Morse, Edward ; Ompad, Danielle ; Strathdee, Steffanie ; Williams, Ian T. ; Friedman, Samuel R. ; Ouellet, Lawrence J. / Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2005 ; Vol. 77, No. 3. pp. 227-233.
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