Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children

Eveline L. de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Tina J. Glasner, M. Bartels, Erik A. Ehli, Gareth E. Davies, James J. Hudziak, Cornelius A. Rietveld, Maria M. Groen-Blokhuis, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I. Boomsma, Abdel Abdellaoui, Arpana Agrawal, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh, Jüri Allik, Najaf Amin, John R. Attia, Stefania BandinelliJohn Barnard, François Bastardot, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Jonathan Beauchamp, Daniel J. Benjamin, Kelly S. Benke, David A. Bennett, Klaus Berger, Lawrence F. Bielak, Laura J. Bierut, Jeffrey A. Boatman, Patricia A. Boyle, Ute Bültmann, Harry Campbell, David Cesarini, Christopher F. Chabris, Lynn Cherkas, Mina K. Chung, Dalton Conley, Francesco Cucca, George Davey-Smith, Gail Davies, Mariza De Andrade, Philip L. De Jager, Christiaan De Leeuw, Jan Emmanuel De, Ian J. Deary, George V. Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Jaime Derringer, Maria Dimitriou, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Niina Eklund, Martin F. Elderson, Johan G. Eriksson, Esko Toñu Esko, Daniel S. Evans, David M. Evans, Jessica D. Faul, Rudolf Fehrmann, Luigi Ferrucci, Krista Fischer, Lude Franke, Melissa E. Garcia, Christian Gieger, Hakon K. Gjessing, Patrick J F Groenen, Henrik Grönberg, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sara Hägg, Per Hall, Jennifer R. Harris, Juliette M. Harris, Tamara B. Harris, Nicholas D. Hastie, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C. Heath, Dena G. Hernandez, Wolgang Hoffmann, Adriaan Hofman, Albert Hofman, Rolf Holle, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Christina Holzapfel, Jouke Jan Hottenga, William G. Iacono, Carla A. Ibrahim-Verbaas, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Bo Jacobsson, Marjo Riitta Järvelin, Min A. Jhun, Magnus Johannesson, Peter K. Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika Kaakinen, Mika Kähönen, Stavroula Kanoni, Jaakkko Kaprio, Sharon L R Kardia, Juha Karjalainen, Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Philipp D. Koellinger, Ivana Kolcic, Matthew Kowgier, Kati Kristiansson, Robert F. Krueger, Zó Ltan Kutalik, Jari Lahti, David Laibson, Antti Latvala, Lenore J. Launer, Debbie A. Lawlor, Sang H. Lee, Terho Lethimäki, Jingmei Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter K. Lichtner, David C. Liewald, Peng Lin, Penelope A. Lind, Yongmei Liu, Kurt Lohman, Marisa Loitfelder, Pamela A. Madden, Patrick K E Magnusson, Tomi E. Mäkinen, Pedro Marques Vidal, Nicolas W. Martin, Nicholas G. Martin, Marco Masala, Matt McGue, George McMahon, Sarah E. Medland, Osorio Meirelles, Andres Metspalu, Michelle N. Meyer, Andreas Mielck, Lili Milani, Michael B. Miller, Grant W. Montgomery, Sutapa Mukherjee, Ronny Myhre, Marja Liisa Nuotio, Dale R. Nyholt, Christopher J. Oldmeadow, Ben A. Oostra, Lyle J. Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Brenda Penninx, Markus Perola, Katja E. Petrovic, Wouter J. Peyrot, Patricia A. Peyser, Polasek Ozren Polasek, Danielle Posthuma, Martin Preisig, Lydia Quaye, Katri Räikkönen, Olli T. Raitakari, Anu Realo, Eva Reinmaa, John P. Rice, Susan M. Ring, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Thais S. Rizzi, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Antti Pekka Sarin, David Schlessinger, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Rodney J. Scott, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Albert V. Smith, Jennifer A. Smith, Harold Snieder, Beate St Pourcain, John M. Starr, Jae Hoon Sul, Ida Surakka, Rauli Svento, Toshiko Tanaka, Antonio Terracciano, Alexander Teumer, A. Roy Thurik, Henning Tiemeier, Nicholas J. Timpson, André G. Uitterlinden, Matthijs J H M Van Der Loos, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Frank J A Van Rooij, David R. Van Wagoner, Erkki Vartiainen, Jorma Viikari, Peter M. Visscher, Veronique Vitart, Peter K. Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Judith M. Vonk, Gérard Waeber, David R. Weir, Jürgen Wellmann, Harm Jan Westra, H. Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widen, Gonneke Willemsen, James F. Wilson, Alan F. Wright, Jian Yang, Lei Yu, Wei Zhao

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)510-520
    Number of pages11
    JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
    Volume165
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2014

    Fingerprint

    Educational Status
    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Aptitude
    Netherlands
    Meta-Analysis
    Linear Models

    Keywords

    • ADHD
    • Educational achievement
    • Genetics
    • Polygenic scores
    • School performance

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Genetics(clinical)
    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
    • Psychiatry and Mental health

    Cite this

    Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children. / de Zeeuw, Eveline L.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Glasner, Tina J.; Bartels, M.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Hudziak, James J.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Allik, Jüri; Amin, Najaf; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barnard, John; Bastardot, François; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bierut, Laura J.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Cesarini, David; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Conley, Dalton; Cucca, Francesco; Davey-Smith, George; Davies, Gail; Andrade, Mariza De; De Jager, Philip L.; Leeuw, Christiaan De; De, Jan Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Derringer, Jaime; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eklund, Niina; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Toñu Esko, Esko; Evans, Daniel S.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Krista; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Hakon K.; Groenen, Patrick J F; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hägg, Sara; Hall, Per; Harris, Jennifer R.; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Hofman, Albert; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Holzapfel, Christina; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Iacono, William G.; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta; Jhun, Min A.; Johannesson, Magnus; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kaprio, Jaakkko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Karjalainen, Juha; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kowgier, Matthew; Kristiansson, Kati; Krueger, Robert F.; Ltan Kutalik, Zó; Lahti, Jari; Laibson, David; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lee, Sang H.; Lethimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter K.; Liewald, David C.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrick K E; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Martin, Nicolas W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Meirelles, Osorio; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Michelle N.; Mielck, Andreas; Milani, Lili; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja Liisa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Ozren Polasek, Polasek; Posthuma, Danielle; Preisig, Martin; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzi, Thais S.; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Scott, Rodney J.; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; Teumer, Alexander; Thurik, A. Roy; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Van Rooij, Frank J A; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Visscher, Peter M.; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter K.; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wellmann, Jürgen; Westra, Harm Jan; Wichmann, H. Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Yang, Jian; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei.

    In: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Vol. 165, No. 6, 2014, p. 510-520.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    de Zeeuw, EL, van Beijsterveldt, CEM, Glasner, TJ, Bartels, M, Ehli, EA, Davies, GE, Hudziak, JJ, Rietveld, CA, Groen-Blokhuis, MM, Hottenga, JJ, de Geus, EJC, Boomsma, DI, Abdellaoui, A, Agrawal, A, Albrecht, E, Alizadeh, BZ, Allik, J, Amin, N, Attia, JR, Bandinelli, S, Barnard, J, Bastardot, F, Baumeister, SE, Beauchamp, J, Benjamin, DJ, Benke, KS, Bennett, DA, Berger, K, Bielak, LF, Bierut, LJ, Boatman, JA, Boyle, PA, Bültmann, U, Campbell, H, Cesarini, D, Chabris, CF, Cherkas, L, Chung, MK, Conley, D, Cucca, F, Davey-Smith, G, Davies, G, Andrade, MD, De Jager, PL, Leeuw, CD, De, JE, Deary, IJ, Dedoussis, GV, Deloukas, P, Derringer, J, Dimitriou, M, Eiriksdottir, G, Eklund, N, Elderson, MF, Eriksson, JG, Toñu Esko, E, Evans, DS, Evans, DM, Faul, JD, Fehrmann, R, Ferrucci, L, Fischer, K, Franke, L, Garcia, ME, Gieger, C, Gjessing, HK, Groenen, PJF, Grönberg, H, Gudnason, V, Hägg, S, Hall, P, Harris, JR, Harris, JM, Harris, TB, Hastie, ND, Hayward, C, Heath, AC, Hernandez, DG, Hoffmann, W, Hofman, A, Hofman, A, Holle, R, Holliday, EG, Holzapfel, C, Hottenga, JJ, Iacono, WG, Ibrahim-Verbaas, CA, Illig, T, Ingelsson, E, Jacobsson, B, Järvelin, MR, Jhun, MA, Johannesson, M, Joshi, PK, Jugessur, A, Kaakinen, M, Kähönen, M, Kanoni, S, Kaprio, J, Kardia, SLR, Karjalainen, J, Kirkpatrick, RM, Koellinger, PD, Kolcic, I, Kowgier, M, Kristiansson, K, Krueger, RF, Ltan Kutalik, Z, Lahti, J, Laibson, D, Latvala, A, Launer, LJ, Lawlor, DA, Lee, SH, Lethimäki, T, Li, J, Lichtenstein, P, Lichtner, PK, Liewald, DC, Lin, P, Lind, PA, Liu, Y, Lohman, K, Loitfelder, M, Madden, PA, Magnusson, PKE, Mäkinen, TE, Vidal, PM, Martin, NW, Martin, NG, Masala, M, McGue, M, McMahon, G, Medland, SE, Meirelles, O, Metspalu, A, Meyer, MN, Mielck, A, Milani, L, Miller, MB, Montgomery, GW, Mukherjee, S, Myhre, R, Nuotio, ML, Nyholt, DR, Oldmeadow, CJ, Oostra, BA, Palmer, LJ, Palotie, A, Penninx, B, Perola, M, Petrovic, KE, Peyrot, WJ, Peyser, PA, Ozren Polasek, P, Posthuma, D, Preisig, M, Quaye, L, Räikkönen, K, Raitakari, OT, Realo, A, Reinmaa, E, Rice, JP, Ring, SM, Ripatti, S, Rivadeneira, F, Rizzi, TS, Rudan, I, Rustichini, A, Salomaa, V, Sarin, AP, Schlessinger, D, Schmidt, H, Schmidt, R, Scott, RJ, Shakhbazov, K, Smith, AV, Smith, JA, Snieder, H, Pourcain, BS, Starr, JM, Sul, JH, Surakka, I, Svento, R, Tanaka, T, Terracciano, A, Teumer, A, Thurik, AR, Tiemeier, H, Timpson, NJ, Uitterlinden, AG, Van Der Loos, MJHM, Van Duijn, CM, Van Rooij, FJA, Van Wagoner, DR, Vartiainen, E, Viikari, J, Visscher, PM, Vitart, V, Vollenweider, PK, Völzke, H, Vonk, JM, Waeber, G, Weir, DR, Wellmann, J, Westra, HJ, Wichmann, HE, Widen, E, Willemsen, G, Wilson, JF, Wright, AF, Yang, J, Yu, L & Zhao, W 2014, 'Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children', American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, vol. 165, no. 6, pp. 510-520. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32254
    de Zeeuw, Eveline L. ; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M ; Glasner, Tina J. ; Bartels, M. ; Ehli, Erik A. ; Davies, Gareth E. ; Hudziak, James J. ; Rietveld, Cornelius A. ; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M. ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; de Geus, Eco J C ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Abdellaoui, Abdel ; Agrawal, Arpana ; Albrecht, Eva ; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z. ; Allik, Jüri ; Amin, Najaf ; Attia, John R. ; Bandinelli, Stefania ; Barnard, John ; Bastardot, François ; Baumeister, Sebastian E. ; Beauchamp, Jonathan ; Benjamin, Daniel J. ; Benke, Kelly S. ; Bennett, David A. ; Berger, Klaus ; Bielak, Lawrence F. ; Bierut, Laura J. ; Boatman, Jeffrey A. ; Boyle, Patricia A. ; Bültmann, Ute ; Campbell, Harry ; Cesarini, David ; Chabris, Christopher F. ; Cherkas, Lynn ; Chung, Mina K. ; Conley, Dalton ; Cucca, Francesco ; Davey-Smith, George ; Davies, Gail ; Andrade, Mariza De ; De Jager, Philip L. ; Leeuw, Christiaan De ; De, Jan Emmanuel ; Deary, Ian J. ; Dedoussis, George V. ; Deloukas, Panos ; Derringer, Jaime ; Dimitriou, Maria ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Eklund, Niina ; Elderson, Martin F. ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Toñu Esko, Esko ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Evans, David M. ; Faul, Jessica D. ; Fehrmann, Rudolf ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Fischer, Krista ; Franke, Lude ; Garcia, Melissa E. ; Gieger, Christian ; Gjessing, Hakon K. ; Groenen, Patrick J F ; Grönberg, Henrik ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Hägg, Sara ; Hall, Per ; Harris, Jennifer R. ; Harris, Juliette M. ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Hastie, Nicholas D. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Hernandez, Dena G. ; Hoffmann, Wolgang ; Hofman, Adriaan ; Hofman, Albert ; Holle, Rolf ; Holliday, Elizabeth G. ; Holzapfel, Christina ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; Iacono, William G. ; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A. ; Illig, Thomas ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Jacobsson, Bo ; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Jhun, Min A. ; Johannesson, Magnus ; Joshi, Peter K. ; Jugessur, Astanand ; Kaakinen, Marika ; Kähönen, Mika ; Kanoni, Stavroula ; Kaprio, Jaakkko ; Kardia, Sharon L R ; Karjalainen, Juha ; Kirkpatrick, Robert M. ; Koellinger, Philipp D. ; Kolcic, Ivana ; Kowgier, Matthew ; Kristiansson, Kati ; Krueger, Robert F. ; Ltan Kutalik, Zó ; Lahti, Jari ; Laibson, David ; Latvala, Antti ; Launer, Lenore J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Lee, Sang H. ; Lethimäki, Terho ; Li, Jingmei ; Lichtenstein, Paul ; Lichtner, Peter K. ; Liewald, David C. ; Lin, Peng ; Lind, Penelope A. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Lohman, Kurt ; Loitfelder, Marisa ; Madden, Pamela A. ; Magnusson, Patrick K E ; Mäkinen, Tomi E. ; Vidal, Pedro Marques ; Martin, Nicolas W. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; Masala, Marco ; McGue, Matt ; McMahon, George ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Meirelles, Osorio ; Metspalu, Andres ; Meyer, Michelle N. ; Mielck, Andreas ; Milani, Lili ; Miller, Michael B. ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Mukherjee, Sutapa ; Myhre, Ronny ; Nuotio, Marja Liisa ; Nyholt, Dale R. ; Oldmeadow, Christopher J. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Palmer, Lyle J. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Penninx, Brenda ; Perola, Markus ; Petrovic, Katja E. ; Peyrot, Wouter J. ; Peyser, Patricia A. ; Ozren Polasek, Polasek ; Posthuma, Danielle ; Preisig, Martin ; Quaye, Lydia ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Raitakari, Olli T. ; Realo, Anu ; Reinmaa, Eva ; Rice, John P. ; Ring, Susan M. ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Rizzi, Thais S. ; Rudan, Igor ; Rustichini, Aldo ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Sarin, Antti Pekka ; Schlessinger, David ; Schmidt, Helena ; Schmidt, Reinhold ; Scott, Rodney J. ; Shakhbazov, Konstantin ; Smith, Albert V. ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Snieder, Harold ; Pourcain, Beate St ; Starr, John M. ; Sul, Jae Hoon ; Surakka, Ida ; Svento, Rauli ; Tanaka, Toshiko ; Terracciano, Antonio ; Teumer, Alexander ; Thurik, A. Roy ; Tiemeier, Henning ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J H M ; Van Duijn, Cornelia M. ; Van Rooij, Frank J A ; Van Wagoner, David R. ; Vartiainen, Erkki ; Viikari, Jorma ; Visscher, Peter M. ; Vitart, Veronique ; Vollenweider, Peter K. ; Völzke, Henry ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Waeber, Gérard ; Weir, David R. ; Wellmann, Jürgen ; Westra, Harm Jan ; Wichmann, H. Erich ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Alan F. ; Yang, Jian ; Yu, Lei ; Zhao, Wei. / Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children. In: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 2014 ; Vol. 165, No. 6. pp. 510-520.
    @article{6f8cba06a74649b9a972f65987f3740c,
    title = "Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children",
    abstract = "The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.",
    keywords = "ADHD, Educational achievement, Genetics, Polygenic scores, School performance",
    author = "{de Zeeuw}, {Eveline L.} and {van Beijsterveldt}, {Catharina E M} and Glasner, {Tina J.} and M. Bartels and Ehli, {Erik A.} and Davies, {Gareth E.} and Hudziak, {James J.} and Rietveld, {Cornelius A.} and Groen-Blokhuis, {Maria M.} and Hottenga, {Jouke Jan} and {de Geus}, {Eco J C} and Boomsma, {Dorret I.} and Abdel Abdellaoui and Arpana Agrawal and Eva Albrecht and Alizadeh, {Behrooz Z.} and J{\"u}ri Allik and Najaf Amin and Attia, {John R.} and Stefania Bandinelli and John Barnard and Fran{\cc}ois Bastardot and Baumeister, {Sebastian E.} and Jonathan Beauchamp and Benjamin, {Daniel J.} and Benke, {Kelly S.} and Bennett, {David A.} and Klaus Berger and Bielak, {Lawrence F.} and Bierut, {Laura J.} and Boatman, {Jeffrey A.} and Boyle, {Patricia A.} and Ute B{\"u}ltmann and Harry Campbell and David Cesarini and Chabris, {Christopher F.} and Lynn Cherkas and Chung, {Mina K.} and Dalton Conley and Francesco Cucca and George Davey-Smith and Gail Davies and Andrade, {Mariza De} and {De Jager}, {Philip L.} and Leeuw, {Christiaan De} and De, {Jan Emmanuel} and Deary, {Ian J.} and Dedoussis, {George V.} and Panos Deloukas and Jaime Derringer and Maria Dimitriou and Gudny Eiriksdottir and Niina Eklund and Elderson, {Martin F.} and Eriksson, {Johan G.} and {To{\~n}u Esko}, Esko and Evans, {Daniel S.} and Evans, {David M.} and Faul, {Jessica D.} and Rudolf Fehrmann and Luigi Ferrucci and Krista Fischer and Lude Franke and Garcia, {Melissa E.} and Christian Gieger and Gjessing, {Hakon K.} and Groenen, {Patrick J F} and Henrik Gr{\"o}nberg and Vilmundur Gudnason and Sara H{\"a}gg and Per Hall and Harris, {Jennifer R.} and Harris, {Juliette M.} and Harris, {Tamara B.} and Hastie, {Nicholas D.} and Caroline Hayward and Heath, {Andrew C.} and Hernandez, {Dena G.} and Wolgang Hoffmann and Adriaan Hofman and Albert Hofman and Rolf Holle and Holliday, {Elizabeth G.} and Christina Holzapfel and Hottenga, {Jouke Jan} and Iacono, {William G.} and Ibrahim-Verbaas, {Carla A.} and Thomas Illig and Erik Ingelsson and Bo Jacobsson and J{\"a}rvelin, {Marjo Riitta} and Jhun, {Min A.} and Magnus Johannesson and Joshi, {Peter K.} and Astanand Jugessur and Marika Kaakinen and Mika K{\"a}h{\"o}nen and Stavroula Kanoni and Jaakkko Kaprio and Kardia, {Sharon L R} and Juha Karjalainen and Kirkpatrick, {Robert M.} and Koellinger, {Philipp D.} and Ivana Kolcic and Matthew Kowgier and Kati Kristiansson and Krueger, {Robert F.} and {Ltan Kutalik}, Z{\'o} and Jari Lahti and David Laibson and Antti Latvala and Launer, {Lenore J.} and Lawlor, {Debbie A.} and Lee, {Sang H.} and Terho Lethim{\"a}ki and Jingmei Li and Paul Lichtenstein and Lichtner, {Peter K.} and Liewald, {David C.} and Peng Lin and Lind, {Penelope A.} and Yongmei Liu and Kurt Lohman and Marisa Loitfelder and Madden, {Pamela A.} and Magnusson, {Patrick K E} and M{\"a}kinen, {Tomi E.} and Vidal, {Pedro Marques} and Martin, {Nicolas W.} and Martin, {Nicholas G.} and Marco Masala and Matt McGue and George McMahon and Medland, {Sarah E.} and Osorio Meirelles and Andres Metspalu and Meyer, {Michelle N.} and Andreas Mielck and Lili Milani and Miller, {Michael B.} and Montgomery, {Grant W.} and Sutapa Mukherjee and Ronny Myhre and Nuotio, {Marja Liisa} and Nyholt, {Dale R.} and Oldmeadow, {Christopher J.} and Oostra, {Ben A.} and Palmer, {Lyle J.} and Aarno Palotie and Brenda Penninx and Markus Perola and Petrovic, {Katja E.} and Peyrot, {Wouter J.} and Peyser, {Patricia A.} and {Ozren Polasek}, Polasek and Danielle Posthuma and Martin Preisig and Lydia Quaye and Katri R{\"a}ikk{\"o}nen and Raitakari, {Olli T.} and Anu Realo and Eva Reinmaa and Rice, {John P.} and Ring, {Susan M.} and Samuli Ripatti and Fernando Rivadeneira and Rizzi, {Thais S.} and Igor Rudan and Aldo Rustichini and Veikko Salomaa and Sarin, {Antti Pekka} and David Schlessinger and Helena Schmidt and Reinhold Schmidt and Scott, {Rodney J.} and Konstantin Shakhbazov and Smith, {Albert V.} and Smith, {Jennifer A.} and Harold Snieder and Pourcain, {Beate St} and Starr, {John M.} and Sul, {Jae Hoon} and Ida Surakka and Rauli Svento and Toshiko Tanaka and Antonio Terracciano and Alexander Teumer and Thurik, {A. Roy} and Henning Tiemeier and Timpson, {Nicholas J.} and Uitterlinden, {Andr{\'e} G.} and {Van Der Loos}, {Matthijs J H M} and {Van Duijn}, {Cornelia M.} and {Van Rooij}, {Frank J A} and {Van Wagoner}, {David R.} and Erkki Vartiainen and Jorma Viikari and Visscher, {Peter M.} and Veronique Vitart and Vollenweider, {Peter K.} and Henry V{\"o}lzke and Vonk, {Judith M.} and G{\'e}rard Waeber and Weir, {David R.} and J{\"u}rgen Wellmann and Westra, {Harm Jan} and Wichmann, {H. Erich} and Elisabeth Widen and Gonneke Willemsen and Wilson, {James F.} and Wright, {Alan F.} and Jian Yang and Lei Yu and Wei Zhao",
    year = "2014",
    doi = "10.1002/ajmg.b.32254",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "165",
    pages = "510--520",
    journal = "American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics",
    issn = "1552-4841",
    publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
    number = "6",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children

    AU - de Zeeuw, Eveline L.

    AU - van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M

    AU - Glasner, Tina J.

    AU - Bartels, M.

    AU - Ehli, Erik A.

    AU - Davies, Gareth E.

    AU - Hudziak, James J.

    AU - Rietveld, Cornelius A.

    AU - Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.

    AU - Hottenga, Jouke Jan

    AU - de Geus, Eco J C

    AU - Boomsma, Dorret I.

    AU - Abdellaoui, Abdel

    AU - Agrawal, Arpana

    AU - Albrecht, Eva

    AU - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    AU - Allik, Jüri

    AU - Amin, Najaf

    AU - Attia, John R.

    AU - Bandinelli, Stefania

    AU - Barnard, John

    AU - Bastardot, François

    AU - Baumeister, Sebastian E.

    AU - Beauchamp, Jonathan

    AU - Benjamin, Daniel J.

    AU - Benke, Kelly S.

    AU - Bennett, David A.

    AU - Berger, Klaus

    AU - Bielak, Lawrence F.

    AU - Bierut, Laura J.

    AU - Boatman, Jeffrey A.

    AU - Boyle, Patricia A.

    AU - Bültmann, Ute

    AU - Campbell, Harry

    AU - Cesarini, David

    AU - Chabris, Christopher F.

    AU - Cherkas, Lynn

    AU - Chung, Mina K.

    AU - Conley, Dalton

    AU - Cucca, Francesco

    AU - Davey-Smith, George

    AU - Davies, Gail

    AU - Andrade, Mariza De

    AU - De Jager, Philip L.

    AU - Leeuw, Christiaan De

    AU - De, Jan Emmanuel

    AU - Deary, Ian J.

    AU - Dedoussis, George V.

    AU - Deloukas, Panos

    AU - Derringer, Jaime

    AU - Dimitriou, Maria

    AU - Eiriksdottir, Gudny

    AU - Eklund, Niina

    AU - Elderson, Martin F.

    AU - Eriksson, Johan G.

    AU - Toñu Esko, Esko

    AU - Evans, Daniel S.

    AU - Evans, David M.

    AU - Faul, Jessica D.

    AU - Fehrmann, Rudolf

    AU - Ferrucci, Luigi

    AU - Fischer, Krista

    AU - Franke, Lude

    AU - Garcia, Melissa E.

    AU - Gieger, Christian

    AU - Gjessing, Hakon K.

    AU - Groenen, Patrick J F

    AU - Grönberg, Henrik

    AU - Gudnason, Vilmundur

    AU - Hägg, Sara

    AU - Hall, Per

    AU - Harris, Jennifer R.

    AU - Harris, Juliette M.

    AU - Harris, Tamara B.

    AU - Hastie, Nicholas D.

    AU - Hayward, Caroline

    AU - Heath, Andrew C.

    AU - Hernandez, Dena G.

    AU - Hoffmann, Wolgang

    AU - Hofman, Adriaan

    AU - Hofman, Albert

    AU - Holle, Rolf

    AU - Holliday, Elizabeth G.

    AU - Holzapfel, Christina

    AU - Hottenga, Jouke Jan

    AU - Iacono, William G.

    AU - Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.

    AU - Illig, Thomas

    AU - Ingelsson, Erik

    AU - Jacobsson, Bo

    AU - Järvelin, Marjo Riitta

    AU - Jhun, Min A.

    AU - Johannesson, Magnus

    AU - Joshi, Peter K.

    AU - Jugessur, Astanand

    AU - Kaakinen, Marika

    AU - Kähönen, Mika

    AU - Kanoni, Stavroula

    AU - Kaprio, Jaakkko

    AU - Kardia, Sharon L R

    AU - Karjalainen, Juha

    AU - Kirkpatrick, Robert M.

    AU - Koellinger, Philipp D.

    AU - Kolcic, Ivana

    AU - Kowgier, Matthew

    AU - Kristiansson, Kati

    AU - Krueger, Robert F.

    AU - Ltan Kutalik, Zó

    AU - Lahti, Jari

    AU - Laibson, David

    AU - Latvala, Antti

    AU - Launer, Lenore J.

    AU - Lawlor, Debbie A.

    AU - Lee, Sang H.

    AU - Lethimäki, Terho

    AU - Li, Jingmei

    AU - Lichtenstein, Paul

    AU - Lichtner, Peter K.

    AU - Liewald, David C.

    AU - Lin, Peng

    AU - Lind, Penelope A.

    AU - Liu, Yongmei

    AU - Lohman, Kurt

    AU - Loitfelder, Marisa

    AU - Madden, Pamela A.

    AU - Magnusson, Patrick K E

    AU - Mäkinen, Tomi E.

    AU - Vidal, Pedro Marques

    AU - Martin, Nicolas W.

    AU - Martin, Nicholas G.

    AU - Masala, Marco

    AU - McGue, Matt

    AU - McMahon, George

    AU - Medland, Sarah E.

    AU - Meirelles, Osorio

    AU - Metspalu, Andres

    AU - Meyer, Michelle N.

    AU - Mielck, Andreas

    AU - Milani, Lili

    AU - Miller, Michael B.

    AU - Montgomery, Grant W.

    AU - Mukherjee, Sutapa

    AU - Myhre, Ronny

    AU - Nuotio, Marja Liisa

    AU - Nyholt, Dale R.

    AU - Oldmeadow, Christopher J.

    AU - Oostra, Ben A.

    AU - Palmer, Lyle J.

    AU - Palotie, Aarno

    AU - Penninx, Brenda

    AU - Perola, Markus

    AU - Petrovic, Katja E.

    AU - Peyrot, Wouter J.

    AU - Peyser, Patricia A.

    AU - Ozren Polasek, Polasek

    AU - Posthuma, Danielle

    AU - Preisig, Martin

    AU - Quaye, Lydia

    AU - Räikkönen, Katri

    AU - Raitakari, Olli T.

    AU - Realo, Anu

    AU - Reinmaa, Eva

    AU - Rice, John P.

    AU - Ring, Susan M.

    AU - Ripatti, Samuli

    AU - Rivadeneira, Fernando

    AU - Rizzi, Thais S.

    AU - Rudan, Igor

    AU - Rustichini, Aldo

    AU - Salomaa, Veikko

    AU - Sarin, Antti Pekka

    AU - Schlessinger, David

    AU - Schmidt, Helena

    AU - Schmidt, Reinhold

    AU - Scott, Rodney J.

    AU - Shakhbazov, Konstantin

    AU - Smith, Albert V.

    AU - Smith, Jennifer A.

    AU - Snieder, Harold

    AU - Pourcain, Beate St

    AU - Starr, John M.

    AU - Sul, Jae Hoon

    AU - Surakka, Ida

    AU - Svento, Rauli

    AU - Tanaka, Toshiko

    AU - Terracciano, Antonio

    AU - Teumer, Alexander

    AU - Thurik, A. Roy

    AU - Tiemeier, Henning

    AU - Timpson, Nicholas J.

    AU - Uitterlinden, André G.

    AU - Van Der Loos, Matthijs J H M

    AU - Van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    AU - Van Rooij, Frank J A

    AU - Van Wagoner, David R.

    AU - Vartiainen, Erkki

    AU - Viikari, Jorma

    AU - Visscher, Peter M.

    AU - Vitart, Veronique

    AU - Vollenweider, Peter K.

    AU - Völzke, Henry

    AU - Vonk, Judith M.

    AU - Waeber, Gérard

    AU - Weir, David R.

    AU - Wellmann, Jürgen

    AU - Westra, Harm Jan

    AU - Wichmann, H. Erich

    AU - Widen, Elisabeth

    AU - Willemsen, Gonneke

    AU - Wilson, James F.

    AU - Wright, Alan F.

    AU - Yang, Jian

    AU - Yu, Lei

    AU - Zhao, Wei

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.

    AB - The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.

    KW - ADHD

    KW - Educational achievement

    KW - Genetics

    KW - Polygenic scores

    KW - School performance

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84906101359&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84906101359&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1002/ajmg.b.32254

    DO - 10.1002/ajmg.b.32254

    M3 - Article

    VL - 165

    SP - 510

    EP - 520

    JO - American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics

    JF - American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics

    SN - 1552-4841

    IS - 6

    ER -