Placental growth patterns affect birth weight for given placental weight

Carolyn M. Salafia, Jun Zhang, Richard K. Miller, Adrian K. Charles, Patrick Shrout, Wenyu Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An important contributor to fetal growth is growth of the placenta, the fetus' sole source of nutrients and oxygen. Here we use placental growth measures (larger and smaller disk diameters, reflecting the laterally expanding chorionic plate, and disk thickness) to test the hypothesis that placental growth patterns, while associated with placental weight and birth weight, measure placental functional efficiency, and will have independent effects on the feto-placental weight ratio (FPR). METHODS: Placental measures were available from 23,313 participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project delivered between 34 and 43 completed weeks. Continuous variables were analyzed by regression for associations with placental weight, birth weight, and FPR, to further explore effects of placental growth patterns on the FPR (lateral chorionic plate growth and chorionic disk thickness were grouped as low, normal, and high values). The relationships of the nine resultant combinations of placental growth categories to the FPR using birth weight adjusted for gestational age, infant gender, parity, and African American race were analyzed (ANOVA). RESULTS: As chorionic disk area and thickness increased, birth weight and placental weight increased, and the FPR decreased (each p < .0001) after adjustment for gestational age, parity, race, and infant gender. Small, thin placental disks had an adjusted FPR of 8.46; the largest, thickest placentas had an adjusted FPR of 6.33. The nine categories of FPRs were significantly different, consistent with chorionic plate area and disk thickness combining to determine the FPR. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of placental growth, relating to different functional dimensions of the placenta, deliver a different birth weight for a given placental weight.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-288
Number of pages8
JournalBirth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Volume79
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2007

Fingerprint

Birth Weight
Weights and Measures
Growth
Placenta
Parity
Gestational Age
Growth Plate
Fetal Development
African Americans
Analysis of Variance
Reference Values
Fetus
Oxygen
Food

Keywords

  • Birth weight
  • Chorionic plate
  • Feto-placental weight ratio
  • National collaborative perinatal project
  • Placenta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Placental growth patterns affect birth weight for given placental weight. / Salafia, Carolyn M.; Zhang, Jun; Miller, Richard K.; Charles, Adrian K.; Shrout, Patrick; Sun, Wenyu.

In: Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology, Vol. 79, No. 4, 04.2007, p. 281-288.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Salafia, Carolyn M. ; Zhang, Jun ; Miller, Richard K. ; Charles, Adrian K. ; Shrout, Patrick ; Sun, Wenyu. / Placental growth patterns affect birth weight for given placental weight. In: Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology. 2007 ; Vol. 79, No. 4. pp. 281-288.
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AB - BACKGROUND: An important contributor to fetal growth is growth of the placenta, the fetus' sole source of nutrients and oxygen. Here we use placental growth measures (larger and smaller disk diameters, reflecting the laterally expanding chorionic plate, and disk thickness) to test the hypothesis that placental growth patterns, while associated with placental weight and birth weight, measure placental functional efficiency, and will have independent effects on the feto-placental weight ratio (FPR). METHODS: Placental measures were available from 23,313 participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project delivered between 34 and 43 completed weeks. Continuous variables were analyzed by regression for associations with placental weight, birth weight, and FPR, to further explore effects of placental growth patterns on the FPR (lateral chorionic plate growth and chorionic disk thickness were grouped as low, normal, and high values). The relationships of the nine resultant combinations of placental growth categories to the FPR using birth weight adjusted for gestational age, infant gender, parity, and African American race were analyzed (ANOVA). RESULTS: As chorionic disk area and thickness increased, birth weight and placental weight increased, and the FPR decreased (each p < .0001) after adjustment for gestational age, parity, race, and infant gender. Small, thin placental disks had an adjusted FPR of 8.46; the largest, thickest placentas had an adjusted FPR of 6.33. The nine categories of FPRs were significantly different, consistent with chorionic plate area and disk thickness combining to determine the FPR. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of placental growth, relating to different functional dimensions of the placenta, deliver a different birth weight for a given placental weight.

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