Phosphomimetic S3D cofilin binds but only weakly severs actin filaments

W. Austin Elam, Wenxiang Cao, Hyeran Kang, Andrew Huehn, Glen Hocky, Ewa Prochniewicz, Anthony C. Schramm, Karina Negrón, Jean Garcia, Teresa T. Bonello, Peter W. Gunning, David D. Thomas, Gregory A. Voth, Charles V. Sindelar, Enrique M. De La Cruz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Many biological processes, including cell division, growth, and motility, rely on rapid remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and on actin filament severing by the regulatory protein cofilin. Phosphorylation of vertebrate cofilin at Ser-3 regulates both actin binding and severing. Substitution of serine with aspartate at position 3 (S3D) is widely used to mimic cofilin phosphorylation in cells and in vitro. The S3D substitution weakens cofilin binding to filaments, and it is presumed that subsequent reduction in cofilin occupancy inhibits filament severing, but this hypothesis has remained untested. Here, using time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy, electron cryomicroscopy, and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that S3D cofilin indeed binds filaments with lower affinity, but also with a higher cooperativity than wild-type cofilin, and severs actin weakly across a broad range of occupancies. We found that three factors contribute to the severing deficiency of S3D cofilin. First, the high cooperativity of S3D cofilin generates fewer boundaries between bare and decorated actin segments where severing occurs preferentially. Second, S3D cofilin only weakly alters filament bending and twisting dynamics and therefore does not introduce the mechanical discontinuities required for efficient filament severing at boundaries. Third, Ser-3 modification (i.e. substitution with Asp or phosphorylation) “undocks” and repositions the cofilin N terminus away from the filament axis, which compromises S3D cofilin’s ability to weaken longitudinal filament subunit interactions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that, in addition to inhibiting actin binding, Ser-3 modification favors formation of a cofilin-binding mode that is unable to sufficiently alter filament mechanical properties and promote severing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19565-19579
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume292
Issue number48
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Actin Depolymerizing Factors
Actin Cytoskeleton
Actins
Phosphorylation
Substitution reactions
Cryoelectron Microscopy
Biological Phenomena
Phosphorescence
Anisotropy
Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Viperidae
Aspartic Acid
Cell Division
Serine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Austin Elam, W., Cao, W., Kang, H., Huehn, A., Hocky, G., Prochniewicz, E., ... De La Cruz, E. M. (2017). Phosphomimetic S3D cofilin binds but only weakly severs actin filaments. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 292(48), 19565-19579. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.808378

Phosphomimetic S3D cofilin binds but only weakly severs actin filaments. / Austin Elam, W.; Cao, Wenxiang; Kang, Hyeran; Huehn, Andrew; Hocky, Glen; Prochniewicz, Ewa; Schramm, Anthony C.; Negrón, Karina; Garcia, Jean; Bonello, Teresa T.; Gunning, Peter W.; Thomas, David D.; Voth, Gregory A.; Sindelar, Charles V.; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 292, No. 48, 01.01.2017, p. 19565-19579.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Austin Elam, W, Cao, W, Kang, H, Huehn, A, Hocky, G, Prochniewicz, E, Schramm, AC, Negrón, K, Garcia, J, Bonello, TT, Gunning, PW, Thomas, DD, Voth, GA, Sindelar, CV & De La Cruz, EM 2017, 'Phosphomimetic S3D cofilin binds but only weakly severs actin filaments', Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 292, no. 48, pp. 19565-19579. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.808378
Austin Elam, W. ; Cao, Wenxiang ; Kang, Hyeran ; Huehn, Andrew ; Hocky, Glen ; Prochniewicz, Ewa ; Schramm, Anthony C. ; Negrón, Karina ; Garcia, Jean ; Bonello, Teresa T. ; Gunning, Peter W. ; Thomas, David D. ; Voth, Gregory A. ; Sindelar, Charles V. ; De La Cruz, Enrique M. / Phosphomimetic S3D cofilin binds but only weakly severs actin filaments. In: Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017 ; Vol. 292, No. 48. pp. 19565-19579.
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AU - Austin Elam, W.

AU - Cao, Wenxiang

AU - Kang, Hyeran

AU - Huehn, Andrew

AU - Hocky, Glen

AU - Prochniewicz, Ewa

AU - Schramm, Anthony C.

AU - Negrón, Karina

AU - Garcia, Jean

AU - Bonello, Teresa T.

AU - Gunning, Peter W.

AU - Thomas, David D.

AU - Voth, Gregory A.

AU - Sindelar, Charles V.

AU - De La Cruz, Enrique M.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Many biological processes, including cell division, growth, and motility, rely on rapid remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and on actin filament severing by the regulatory protein cofilin. Phosphorylation of vertebrate cofilin at Ser-3 regulates both actin binding and severing. Substitution of serine with aspartate at position 3 (S3D) is widely used to mimic cofilin phosphorylation in cells and in vitro. The S3D substitution weakens cofilin binding to filaments, and it is presumed that subsequent reduction in cofilin occupancy inhibits filament severing, but this hypothesis has remained untested. Here, using time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy, electron cryomicroscopy, and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that S3D cofilin indeed binds filaments with lower affinity, but also with a higher cooperativity than wild-type cofilin, and severs actin weakly across a broad range of occupancies. We found that three factors contribute to the severing deficiency of S3D cofilin. First, the high cooperativity of S3D cofilin generates fewer boundaries between bare and decorated actin segments where severing occurs preferentially. Second, S3D cofilin only weakly alters filament bending and twisting dynamics and therefore does not introduce the mechanical discontinuities required for efficient filament severing at boundaries. Third, Ser-3 modification (i.e. substitution with Asp or phosphorylation) “undocks” and repositions the cofilin N terminus away from the filament axis, which compromises S3D cofilin’s ability to weaken longitudinal filament subunit interactions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that, in addition to inhibiting actin binding, Ser-3 modification favors formation of a cofilin-binding mode that is unable to sufficiently alter filament mechanical properties and promote severing.

AB - Many biological processes, including cell division, growth, and motility, rely on rapid remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and on actin filament severing by the regulatory protein cofilin. Phosphorylation of vertebrate cofilin at Ser-3 regulates both actin binding and severing. Substitution of serine with aspartate at position 3 (S3D) is widely used to mimic cofilin phosphorylation in cells and in vitro. The S3D substitution weakens cofilin binding to filaments, and it is presumed that subsequent reduction in cofilin occupancy inhibits filament severing, but this hypothesis has remained untested. Here, using time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy, electron cryomicroscopy, and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that S3D cofilin indeed binds filaments with lower affinity, but also with a higher cooperativity than wild-type cofilin, and severs actin weakly across a broad range of occupancies. We found that three factors contribute to the severing deficiency of S3D cofilin. First, the high cooperativity of S3D cofilin generates fewer boundaries between bare and decorated actin segments where severing occurs preferentially. Second, S3D cofilin only weakly alters filament bending and twisting dynamics and therefore does not introduce the mechanical discontinuities required for efficient filament severing at boundaries. Third, Ser-3 modification (i.e. substitution with Asp or phosphorylation) “undocks” and repositions the cofilin N terminus away from the filament axis, which compromises S3D cofilin’s ability to weaken longitudinal filament subunit interactions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that, in addition to inhibiting actin binding, Ser-3 modification favors formation of a cofilin-binding mode that is unable to sufficiently alter filament mechanical properties and promote severing.

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