Periodic components in the diversity of calcareous plankton and geological events over the past 230 Myr

Andreas Prokoph, Michael Rampino, Hafida El Bilali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We performed statistical analysis on high-resolution records of the diversity of calcareous plankton (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton), and on records of global sea level, marine isotopes (δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr), large igneous province (LIP) eruptions, and dated impact craters over the last 230 Myr. Results of Continuous Wavelet Analysis (CWT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectral analysis and cross-spectral analysis indicate that the records of diversity of calcareous nannoplankton (CN) and planktonic foraminifera (PF) and all of the geologic time series tested show similar dominant 25-33 Myr cycles. Based on the statistical results, best-fit stationary-periodic models for PF and CN evolutionary records can be constructed (with t=time in Myr): CN diversity=9.5 sin(2π(t-7.5 Myr)/29 Myr)+4.8 sin(2π(t-4 Myr)/15.3 Myr), and PF diversity=7.6 sin(2π(t-12 Myr)/26 Myr)+3 sin(2πt/9.2 Myr). These periodic models describe major patterns in the diversity history, such as: (1) a sawtooth-shaped 29-Myr cycle for calcareous nannoplankton diversity, with gradual increases and abrupt decreases in diversity; (2) plateau-shaped ∼26-Myr cycles in the planktonic foraminiferal record, with abrupt diversity increases and decreases; and (3) the presence of ∼15.3- and 9.2-Myr periodic components that modify the shapes of the 26- to 29-Myr cycles. Except for the synchronous decreases in diversity of PF and CN at 65 and ∼34 Ma, the diversity extrema for the two planktonic groups have been on average ∼2 to 3 Myr out of phase. In the ∼30-Myr-cycle band, CN diversity increased with sea-level rise and increased paleotemperatures, whereas PF diversity was, in general, greater during times of lower sea levels. Diversity of PF and CN was reduced at times of major LIP eruptions and large impacts that follow ∼15 or 30 Myr periodicities. These results suggest that the diversity of calcareous plankton since their appearance in the early Mesozoic has been modulated by long-term cyclical changes in global environmental conditions and by periodic large volcanic and impact events. The pacemaker, or pacemakers, for these cycles may be astrophysical, geophysical or some combination of the two.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-125
Number of pages21
JournalPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Volume207
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 14 2004

Fingerprint

nanoplankton
planktonic foraminifera
plankton
sea level
large igneous province
spectral analysis
volcanic eruption
global change
Retaria
paleotemperature
wavelet analysis
periodicity
long-term change
time series analysis
isotopes
plateaus
Fourier transform
statistical analysis
crater
environmental conditions

Keywords

  • Calcareous nannoplankton
  • Cycles
  • Diversity
  • Evolution
  • Planktonic foraminifera
  • Time-series analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Periodic components in the diversity of calcareous plankton and geological events over the past 230 Myr. / Prokoph, Andreas; Rampino, Michael; El Bilali, Hafida.

In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 207, No. 1-2, 14.05.2004, p. 105-125.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{465db3f676244ec88b15bd085d2d176f,
title = "Periodic components in the diversity of calcareous plankton and geological events over the past 230 Myr",
abstract = "We performed statistical analysis on high-resolution records of the diversity of calcareous plankton (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton), and on records of global sea level, marine isotopes (δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr), large igneous province (LIP) eruptions, and dated impact craters over the last 230 Myr. Results of Continuous Wavelet Analysis (CWT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectral analysis and cross-spectral analysis indicate that the records of diversity of calcareous nannoplankton (CN) and planktonic foraminifera (PF) and all of the geologic time series tested show similar dominant 25-33 Myr cycles. Based on the statistical results, best-fit stationary-periodic models for PF and CN evolutionary records can be constructed (with t=time in Myr): CN diversity=9.5 sin(2π(t-7.5 Myr)/29 Myr)+4.8 sin(2π(t-4 Myr)/15.3 Myr), and PF diversity=7.6 sin(2π(t-12 Myr)/26 Myr)+3 sin(2πt/9.2 Myr). These periodic models describe major patterns in the diversity history, such as: (1) a sawtooth-shaped 29-Myr cycle for calcareous nannoplankton diversity, with gradual increases and abrupt decreases in diversity; (2) plateau-shaped ∼26-Myr cycles in the planktonic foraminiferal record, with abrupt diversity increases and decreases; and (3) the presence of ∼15.3- and 9.2-Myr periodic components that modify the shapes of the 26- to 29-Myr cycles. Except for the synchronous decreases in diversity of PF and CN at 65 and ∼34 Ma, the diversity extrema for the two planktonic groups have been on average ∼2 to 3 Myr out of phase. In the ∼30-Myr-cycle band, CN diversity increased with sea-level rise and increased paleotemperatures, whereas PF diversity was, in general, greater during times of lower sea levels. Diversity of PF and CN was reduced at times of major LIP eruptions and large impacts that follow ∼15 or 30 Myr periodicities. These results suggest that the diversity of calcareous plankton since their appearance in the early Mesozoic has been modulated by long-term cyclical changes in global environmental conditions and by periodic large volcanic and impact events. The pacemaker, or pacemakers, for these cycles may be astrophysical, geophysical or some combination of the two.",
keywords = "Calcareous nannoplankton, Cycles, Diversity, Evolution, Planktonic foraminifera, Time-series analysis",
author = "Andreas Prokoph and Michael Rampino and {El Bilali}, Hafida",
year = "2004",
month = "5",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "207",
pages = "105--125",
journal = "Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology",
issn = "0031-0182",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Periodic components in the diversity of calcareous plankton and geological events over the past 230 Myr

AU - Prokoph, Andreas

AU - Rampino, Michael

AU - El Bilali, Hafida

PY - 2004/5/14

Y1 - 2004/5/14

N2 - We performed statistical analysis on high-resolution records of the diversity of calcareous plankton (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton), and on records of global sea level, marine isotopes (δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr), large igneous province (LIP) eruptions, and dated impact craters over the last 230 Myr. Results of Continuous Wavelet Analysis (CWT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectral analysis and cross-spectral analysis indicate that the records of diversity of calcareous nannoplankton (CN) and planktonic foraminifera (PF) and all of the geologic time series tested show similar dominant 25-33 Myr cycles. Based on the statistical results, best-fit stationary-periodic models for PF and CN evolutionary records can be constructed (with t=time in Myr): CN diversity=9.5 sin(2π(t-7.5 Myr)/29 Myr)+4.8 sin(2π(t-4 Myr)/15.3 Myr), and PF diversity=7.6 sin(2π(t-12 Myr)/26 Myr)+3 sin(2πt/9.2 Myr). These periodic models describe major patterns in the diversity history, such as: (1) a sawtooth-shaped 29-Myr cycle for calcareous nannoplankton diversity, with gradual increases and abrupt decreases in diversity; (2) plateau-shaped ∼26-Myr cycles in the planktonic foraminiferal record, with abrupt diversity increases and decreases; and (3) the presence of ∼15.3- and 9.2-Myr periodic components that modify the shapes of the 26- to 29-Myr cycles. Except for the synchronous decreases in diversity of PF and CN at 65 and ∼34 Ma, the diversity extrema for the two planktonic groups have been on average ∼2 to 3 Myr out of phase. In the ∼30-Myr-cycle band, CN diversity increased with sea-level rise and increased paleotemperatures, whereas PF diversity was, in general, greater during times of lower sea levels. Diversity of PF and CN was reduced at times of major LIP eruptions and large impacts that follow ∼15 or 30 Myr periodicities. These results suggest that the diversity of calcareous plankton since their appearance in the early Mesozoic has been modulated by long-term cyclical changes in global environmental conditions and by periodic large volcanic and impact events. The pacemaker, or pacemakers, for these cycles may be astrophysical, geophysical or some combination of the two.

AB - We performed statistical analysis on high-resolution records of the diversity of calcareous plankton (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton), and on records of global sea level, marine isotopes (δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr), large igneous province (LIP) eruptions, and dated impact craters over the last 230 Myr. Results of Continuous Wavelet Analysis (CWT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectral analysis and cross-spectral analysis indicate that the records of diversity of calcareous nannoplankton (CN) and planktonic foraminifera (PF) and all of the geologic time series tested show similar dominant 25-33 Myr cycles. Based on the statistical results, best-fit stationary-periodic models for PF and CN evolutionary records can be constructed (with t=time in Myr): CN diversity=9.5 sin(2π(t-7.5 Myr)/29 Myr)+4.8 sin(2π(t-4 Myr)/15.3 Myr), and PF diversity=7.6 sin(2π(t-12 Myr)/26 Myr)+3 sin(2πt/9.2 Myr). These periodic models describe major patterns in the diversity history, such as: (1) a sawtooth-shaped 29-Myr cycle for calcareous nannoplankton diversity, with gradual increases and abrupt decreases in diversity; (2) plateau-shaped ∼26-Myr cycles in the planktonic foraminiferal record, with abrupt diversity increases and decreases; and (3) the presence of ∼15.3- and 9.2-Myr periodic components that modify the shapes of the 26- to 29-Myr cycles. Except for the synchronous decreases in diversity of PF and CN at 65 and ∼34 Ma, the diversity extrema for the two planktonic groups have been on average ∼2 to 3 Myr out of phase. In the ∼30-Myr-cycle band, CN diversity increased with sea-level rise and increased paleotemperatures, whereas PF diversity was, in general, greater during times of lower sea levels. Diversity of PF and CN was reduced at times of major LIP eruptions and large impacts that follow ∼15 or 30 Myr periodicities. These results suggest that the diversity of calcareous plankton since their appearance in the early Mesozoic has been modulated by long-term cyclical changes in global environmental conditions and by periodic large volcanic and impact events. The pacemaker, or pacemakers, for these cycles may be astrophysical, geophysical or some combination of the two.

KW - Calcareous nannoplankton

KW - Cycles

KW - Diversity

KW - Evolution

KW - Planktonic foraminifera

KW - Time-series analysis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=2342652388&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=2342652388&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.004

DO - 10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.004

M3 - Article

VL - 207

SP - 105

EP - 125

JO - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

JF - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

SN - 0031-0182

IS - 1-2

ER -